Ninety-five cattle with various diseases, 28 healthy, and 10 grazing cattle were examined for serum concentration of aracid glycoprotein (α1-AG). It was assayed by the single radial immunodiffusion method. The serum α1-AG level was 236±68μg/ml in the healthy cattle, 843±532μg/ml in cases with bovine leukosis and 973±1099μg/ml in cases with inflammatory diseases. The α1-AG level was much higher in cattle with liver abscess, multiple abscess, gangrenous mastitis, eosinophilic myositis and pneumonia than that in normal cattle. However, the levels in cattle with cerebral abscess, meningitis or fatty liver were identical to those in normal cattle, and less in cattle with fat necrosis. No noticeable changes in α1-AG level were observed in healthy grazing cattle. From these results, serum α1-AG concentration seemed to be useful for the diagnosis of leukosis and inflammatory diseases in cattle.
On February 16, and March 8, 1987, two abnormal cattle births occurred in Saga Prefecture. One displayed an inability to stand, crooking of the four extremities, and rachicampsis, while the other was stillbirth. From the histopathological findings and neutralizing test against Aino virus, it was suggested that the abnormal births may have been associated with an infection of Aino virus. A survey of neutralizing tests against Aino virus revealed that this virus was widely prevalent among cattle in Saga Prefecture, and the epizootic of this virus infection started in September, as well as, that of the Akabane virus.
We examined the correlation between two methods for measuring activities of N-acetyl-β-Dglucosaminidase (NAGase) in cow milk. One was the usual method in which ρ-Nitrophenyl-Nacetyl-β-D-glucosaminide was used as the substrate. The other was the fluorescence method that was tested on microplates in which 4-Methyl-umbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide was used as the substrate. The coefficient correlation and regression equations were r=0.968 and y=0.931 X+1.327 between these methods. The coefficient of variation of simultaneous reproducibility was 4.0%. The average value of NAGase in 125 healthy quarters milk measured by the fluorescence method was 6.2 ±3.3 n mol/min/ml, and that in 275 mastitis quarters 102.6±79.33 n mol/min/ml, statistically higher than the former. In comparison to the other diagnostic methods for mastitis, the coefficient correlation between NAGase and PL test was highest at 0.871, followed by that of direct microscopical somatic cell counts at 0.791, and electrical conductivity at 0.751. According to recovering of mastitis the value of NAGase in milk from mastitis quarters tended to decrease gradually. The Fluorescence method seemed to be simple, useful and a reliable method for diagnosis of mastitis.
Pathological observation of stunting syndrome with pancreatic atrophy in broiler chickens was made on 95 chickens from 9 affected broiler flocks and 28 chickens from a single broiler flock where the syndrome was expected to occur. At necropsy, pancreatic atrophy was found in 91.6% of the affected chickens. Histologically, atrophy of the acinus, dilation of the acinal lumen, interstitial fibrosis, and hyperplasia of lymphoid follicle were observed in the pancreas. The pancreatic ducts near the ductus choledochus showed stenosis and occlusion in 70.4% of the pancreas. Three chickens from a broiler flock where the occurrence was anticipated showed characteristic pancreatic lesions, and obstruction of the pancreatic ducts near the ductus choledochus. The pathogenesis of the pancreatic lesions may be due to the obstruction of the pancreatic ducts near the ductus choledochus.
Immunological characteristics of highly virulent avian reovirus, strain 58-132, were investigated. In field survey, neutralizing antibodies against strain 58-132 were detected in 64%(antibody titers, ≥100) or 32%(antibody titers, ≥500) of chicken flocks. By neutralization test, strain 58-132 crossreacted strongly with the other 10 virulent strains which had been classified into one serotype represented by the prototype strain TS-142. In challenge test (in vivo.), chickens immunized with inactivated strain 58-132 showed protection against footpad-challenge with 4 heterologous strains as well as homologous strain 58-132. These results showed that strain 58-132 and the other virulent strains used in this study were serologically correlated well each other, and also suggested that strain 58-132 may be a usefull strain in development of a vaccine against avian reovirus infection.
Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from pigs in Ibaraki Prefecture, and examined for their biological properties, coagulase types, enterotoxigenicity and antibiotic susceptibilities. As a result, biological properties of 63 strains of S. aureus were similar to biotype B in the biotype classification of HÁJEK and MARSÁLEK. Of the 30 isolates, 20 (66.7%) strains were coagulase type II, III, VI or VII, and 4 (13.3%) strains produced enterotoxins. In addition, 5 (16.7%) and 7 (23.3%) strains were resistant to streptomycin and erythromycin, respectively. Accordingly, it was considered that S. aureus isolated from the pigs might cause staphylococcal food poisoning.
Biochemical and immunological examinations were performed on a 2-year-old Holstein-Friesian heifer with skin leukosis. Acid phosphatase activity of the peripheral blood lymphocytes increased remarkably in stages when the cutaneous tumors were mulitple and predominant. Serum lactatedehydrogenase and isoenzyme activities were also elevated. These levels declined gradually with regression of the cutaneous tumors, and the tendency was intensified in the stage of complete regres-sion. Peripheral blood lymphocytes in the regression stage were well stimulated by T-cell mitogen. Suppression of lyphocytic blastogenetic activity by phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A stimulation was evident in the tumorous stage, but not in the regressed stage of the affected heifer. Serum α1 acid glycoprotein was elevated in the predominant stgae and declined gradually as the cutaneous lesions were repressed.
One 20-day-old, male piglet died showing an icteric tinge on a Kagoshima Prefecture swinery. By histopathological examinations, basophilic intranuclear inclusions were found in megalocytes, which appeared in the liver, spleen, lungs, and mesenteric lymph nodes. The inclusions demonstrated a positive Feulgen reaction. Electron microscopy revealed numerous herpes virus-like particles in intranuclear inclusions. Specific fluoresecnce was demonstrated in relation to intranuclear inclusions by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using anti-porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) swine sreum. Based on these results, the present cases was diagnosed as a disease caused by PCMV. A serological survey performed on the swinery indicated 66.7% of the pigs were positive for antibody against PCMV. However, the dam of the diseased piglet was negative for antibody to PCMV. It was presumed, therefore, that the present case may have become infected with PCMV sometime between 5 and 10 days after its birth.