For the sake of examining the relationship between blood concentrations of lactic acid (LA) and ammonia (NH3) and rumen condition, 25 Holstein dairy cows were divided into 3 groups on the basis of diet: normal (N), high starch (S), and high protein (P). In the S group, the number of protozoa and their motility in rumen fluid decreased remarkably after feeding. Two hours after feeding, rumen-fluid concentrations of both D-LA and L-LA increased. Rumen-fluid pH, however, dropped after feeding. Correlation between D-LA and L-LA concentrations in both blood and rumen fluid was observed. In the P group, 23 hours after feeding, NH3 concentration in the rumen fluid increased remarkably. In the N and S groups, however, concentration in the rumen fluid decreased 4 hours after feeding. Correlation of NH3 concentration in both rumen fluid and blood was observed 4 hours after feeding. Blood LA and NH3 concentrations reflect protein intake and digestion in dairycow rumen.
This study investigates the influence on pregnancy rates of the position on the uterine horn to which frozenthawed bovine embryos were transferred. The embryos were frozen by means of ethylene glycol (EG) or glycerol (Gly). The base of the uterine horn is located at from 2 to 4 cm (shallow intrauterine) from the bifurcation of the horn. The middle of the uterine horn is from 10 to 15 cm (deep intrauterine) from the horn bifurcation. After thawing, embryos (morulae and blastocytes collected on day 7 of the estrous cycle) frozen with 1.5 M EG+0.1 M sucrose (Suc) were transferred directly either without cryoprotectant dilution or with stepby step dilution. Gly was removed before direct transferal of Gly-frozen embryos. Pregnancy rates are as follows: Uterine-horn base and 1.5 M EG-68.7%, Uterine-horn base and 1.5 M EG+0.1 M Suc -69.2%, and Uterine-horn base and 1.4 Gly-67.2%; Uterine-horn mid-region and 1.5 M EG 31.7%, Uterine-horn mid-region and 1.5 M EG+0.1 M Suc-68.8%, and Uterine-horn mid-region and 1.4 M Gly-70.5%. Pregnancy rates with 1.5 M EG, M EG+0.1 M Suc, and 1.4 M Gly did not differ significantly according to transfer position. Pregnancy rates to the base of the uterine horn when 1.5 M EG was used where higher than rates when the same substance was used and the transfer was to the uterine-horn mid-region (P<0.01).
A study was made of the effects of an enteric capsule preparation containing 3×108Bifidobacterium pseudolongum JBP01 on fecal flora and fecal odor in 9 dogs (4 females and 5 males) ranging in age from 5 months to 5 years. Two weeks after inoculation, the preparation had significantly increased numbers of fecal bifidobacteria. In 2 of the dogs, no lecithinase-positive clostridia were detected, and the preparation significantly decreased fecal odor.
Twenty-six clinical cases of canine giardiasis with histories of diarrhea were treated with three benzimidazoles recognized as effective in overseasa febantel combination (8 cases, 30 mg/kg of body weight, once a day for 3 days, orally), albendazole (7 cases, 25 mg/kg of body weight, twice a day for 2 days orally), or fenbendazole (11 cases, 50 mg/kg of body weight, once a day for 3 days, orally). In all cases, one or two administration courses of benzimidazoles eliminated fecal Giardias and clinical signs of diarrhea. Except for one case of temporary salivation when the febantel combination was administered, no general side effects were observed. These results suggest that benzimidazoles are effective for cases of canine giardiasis also in Japan.