One native Japanese cow and 8 Friesian cows presented the right-side displacement of the abomasum. Four of them were also suffering from torsion. All of them were found in Ibaraki Prefecture, northeast of Tokyo, during a period from September, 1966, to October, 1968. Five cases occurred within 8 days, one a month, one about 5 months, one about 7 months after calving, respectively. The remaining one was observed 4 days after the surgical correction of the left-sided displacement of the abomasum. In all the cases, typical high-pitched tinkling sounds and a. diagnostic ping were heard evidently on percussion of the right last ribs on the right flank. Surgical intervention was attempted on all the cases associated with omentopexy to the right abdominal wall, except one. Recovery occurred uneventfully to six of the 9 cases, including one on which no omentopexy had been performed. A 180°rotation in a clockwise direction was encountered at the omaso-abomasal junction in 1 case, a 180°rotation in a counter-clockwise direction around the longitudinal axis of the abomasum in 2 cases, and a 360°rotation in a counter-clockwise direction around the transverse axis of the body which had been described by NEAL and PINSENT, in 1 case. In the last case, the signs of colic were evident and the urinary indican reaction was positive. The cow deteriorated rapidly and died at the end of the surgical treatment. Autopsy revealed the rupture of the lesser omentum at the hepatic attachment, of which a complete replacement was impossible, and the medial displacement of the liver.
Studies were made on the relationship between hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) and virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody titers and ability to protect against infection in birds immunized by single or simultaneous inoculation with live-virus and inactivated Newcastle disease vaccine. 1. There was a positive correlation between HI and VN antibody titers. When the average VN antibody titer was calculated from the HI antibody tietr, it was indicated by the following equation expressed with a straight line at the critical rate of 1 per cent by regression analysis: y=0.17+0.35x The average HI titer as calculated from the VN titer was indicated by the following equation expressed with a straight line at the critical rate of 5 per cent when the VN titer ranged from 0 to 2.5. y=0.19+0.23x When the VN titer was extended to a range from 2.6 to 3.5, the equation was not expressed with a straight line. 2. The higher the HI titer, the higher the protective rate of infection. When the HI titer was equal, the older were birds, the higher became this rate in the birds. When the antibody titer was equal and low (2>to 16), this rate was the highest in the group inoculated with inactivated vaccine alone, the second highest in that inoculated simultaneously with both vaccines, and the lowest in that inoculated with live-virus vaccine alone. 3. The relationship established between the VN titer and the protective rate of infection was essentially the same as that between the HI titer and this rate, There was no difference in this rate due to age of the bird. 4. There was a remarkable difference in the protective rate of infection between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups, even in the case of equal antibody titer. The rate was higher in the vaccinated groups.
The ultra-fine structures of neutrophilic leukocytes in the peripheral blood of non-Aleutian minks and Aleutian minks with the CHEDIAK-HIGASHI syndrome (CHS) were studied by electron microscopy. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The specific granules of the neutrophilic leukocytes of the non-Aleutian minks were divided into 3 kinds of types: a type of high electron density, a type of medium electron density, and a vascular type. They were 0.18, 0.15, and 0.12μin average size, respectively. 2. In the neutrophilic leukocytes of the minks with CHS, specific granules of high electron density decreased markedly, and granules of vascular type increased extremely, as compared with those of the non-Aleutian minks. 3. In the cytoplasm of the neutrophilic leukocytes of the minks with CHS, abnormally enlarged granules of very high electron density were detected. They were 0.94 (0.37-2.02)μin average size. 4. The background of the abnormally enlarged granules was surrounded by double membranes and filled fully with fine granular substances of mediumor high electron density. In the granules, various substances and structures, such as clearly recognizable or swollen neutrophilic specific granules, amorphous or roundish masses of heterogeneous substances, membranous or myelinic substances, and vacuoles, were observed. 5. In some of the abnormally enlarged granules, morphological findings suggesting a direct fusion of one granule to another were obtained.