To establish an effective vaccination program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, cattle were inoculated with commercial polyvalent vaccines which contain inactivated BVD virus, which were seronegative for BVD virus and bovine herpes virus 1. A single shot of the vaccines induced little antibody response in these cattle. One month after the second vaccination, a significant presence of neutralizing antibodies was detected in cattle and antibody titers decreased gradually. It was also demonstrated that an additional shot of the vaccines at 12 months after the first vaccination induced antibody response enough to prevent manifestation of disease signs. On the basis of the present results, two vaccinations and an annual
To the purpose of simultaneous and rapid analysis of large numbers of samples, a micro assay for vitamin A (VA) in cattle serum, based on a direct fluorescent method, was studied. We tested various assay conditions suitable for a fluorescence microplate reader. The correlation between direct fluorescence and the VA concentrations determined by HPLC was not influenced by the diluents tested, that is, 0.1 M NaCl and distilled water. The highest correlation was obtained when a 1:10 dilution of serum (20ul) in distilled water (180ul) and excitation and emission wavelengths of 335 and 510 nm, respectively, were used (r=0.93, n=400). The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variance were 3.3% and 3.2%, respectively. The direct fluorescence method produced results that differed markedly from those of the HPLC method in 0.5% of specimens. This improved method enables serum VA to be measured to a lower limit of 20 IU/dl with acceptable accuracy.
Carbon Silk (CS) is made from silk fabrics heated to around 1000ºC, and has been shown to have an anti-bacterial effect. We therefore examined the ability of CS to eliminate viruses, with three envelope viruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, Audieskv's virus, vesicular stomatitis virus) and two non-envelope viruses (footand mouth disease virus (FMDV), swine vesicular disease virus). CS showed a significant ability to eliminate viruses against three envelope viruses and FMDV. This effect was enhanced by increasing the quantities of CS, but was not affected by reaction time or temperature, and it was observed in repetitive reactions. The mechanism of this CS effect was considered to consist of electrostatic interactions between virus particles and the N radical in the CS.
One case of situs inversus was discovered among 7, 512 necropsied cattle. This case was an eight-month-oldfemale Japanese Black calf. In this calf the rumen and spleen were located on the right, while the omasum, abomasums, small intestine, cecum, colon and liver were to the left of the midline. The left lung had five lobesand tracheal bronchus and the right lung had three lobes. An image of the heart showed a mirror situs of thenormal heart and the aorta coursed to the right. In this case, paranasal sinusitis suggesting the presence of Kartagener's syndrome in the cattle was detected.
From September 2005 to January 2006, 16 canine abortions at approximately 50 days of gestation occurredcontinuously at two breeding kennels in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. A gram-negative cocobacillus was isolatedin pure culture from a fetus of a two-year old poodle dam. The isolate was identified to Brucella canis by bacteriological characterization and by the detection of BCSP31 by PCR and PCR-RFLP of omp3l gene. Theresult of tube agglutination tests of the sera for ten aborted bitches and six mated males were positive (1: 160-1: 1, 280). Positive animals (≥times;640) were removed and all the affected dogs of the kennels were orally treatedwith minocycline (10mg/kg) twice daily for 30 days. The antibodies against B. canis turned negative andthe bacteria have been eradicated at the kennels.
We investigated the serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genomic analysis of Salmonella isolates frombile and caecum contents of slaughtered swine (n=110) from 59 farms in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Salmonellaspp. were detected in eight swine (7.3%) from seven farms (11.9%). Of these positive swine, S. Typhimuriumand S. Derby were isolated from five and three caecum content samples, respectively. In addition, oneswine harbored S. Derby in a bile sample (<30MPN/100ml). The S. Typhimurium isolates showed resistanceto ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline, florfenicol and sulfamethizole. The organisms werepresumed to be phage type DT104 by using the PCR method. Our results suggested that the multiple drugresistant S. Typhimurium has already spread out over swine in Gunma prefecture and caecum content and bilemay be potential vehicles for contaminating edible product at a swine processing plant.
This paper examines the prevalence of Salmonella, Pasteurella and Staphylococcus bacteria found among petgreen iguanas (Iguana iguana) in 23 prefectures throughout Japan. An examination of stool samples of the petiguanas revealed Salmonella spp. in 17 of 98 samples (17.3%). Forty-seven of the 49 Salmonella isolates examinedwere classified as biogroup IV, S. enterica subsp. houtenae. They included three isolates of serotype 45: g, z51:-which had been found in a case of infant iguana-associated Salmonellosis in Japan. The remaining two isolateswere identified as biogroup I, S. enterica subsp. enterica. Nine of the 17 isolates examined (52.9%) showed a resistance to streptomycin, and the genes for both a cell invasion factor (invA) and enterotoxin (stn) were detected in all 17 isolates. Of 89 oral swabs taken from the iguanas, P. multocida was isolated in three (3.4%) of the swabs and S. aureus was isolated in 18 (20.2%).
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), a fast and cost-effective serodiagnosis, is a helpful screeningmethod in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, it remains unclear whether ELISA is suitable forthe diagnosis of zoo animals. This study examined the reactivity of Protein G, an IgG-binding protein, to serafrom zoo animals. Results showed that most sera examined bound strongly to Protein G, while sera from marsupialanimals, Panthera and Asian elephant showed weak reactions. These findings suggest that Protein Gdoes not bind IgG uniformly in zoo animals. IgG was purified from Asian elephant serum, andused to obtainantiserum by immunizing a rabbit. This made it possible to develop an ELISA system for effectively detectingIgG in an Asian elephant.