This study was an epidemiological analysis of our experience with 68 cases of bovine mycoplasma mastitis outbreaks over the last 22 years in Hokkaido, Japan. Seventy-five percent of these outbreaks occurred during the last five years; therefore, this revealed an increased incidence of mycoplasma mastitis in Hokkaido. The causes of the outbreak of mycoplasma mastitis in the dairy herd seemed to be the external introduction of pregnant heifers, the parturition of primiparous cows, and occurrences of pneumonia. Mycoplasma bovis was the predominant causative agent in large dairy herds, and Mycoplasma californicum was as significant as M. bovis. In other species, it appeared that these pathogens penetrated large herds regularly and subclinically. The proportion of mycoplasma-infected cows by herd size was 3.8%-15.1% (interquartile range). The developmental period was 0.3-4.7 months, and the disease resulted in 2.1%-9.5% of cows being culled in these herds. In larger herds, the developmental period was extended, and many new infections were found while taking measures to control mycoplasma mastitis, but the installation of quarantine pens for mycoplasma-infected cows was effective in controlling the disease.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to ascertain the effects of obstetrical manipulation on cow survival and subsequent fertility following the correction of uterine torsion. The records of 112 cows that had undergone the successful correction of uterine torsion were examined, and the cows were divided into three groups based on calving difficulty: no/slight assistance (48 cows), moderate/serious assistance (48 cows) and cesarean section (16 cows). The survival (1 month) and conception rates (1 year) of the cows in these groups were compared. The survival rate of cows in the no/slight-assistance group was 97.9%, and the conception rate was 89.4%. The conception rate in the moderate/serious-assistance group was significantly lower (67.4%). The survival rate of cows that underwent cesarean section was 75.0%, which was significantly lower than that of the cows in the no/slight-assistance group. However, there was no significant difference between the conception rate of cows in the cesarean section group and the no/slight-assistance group. These results suggest that serious assistance or traumatic injuries to the birth canal after the correction of uterine torsion decrease subsequent conception rates. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider obstetrical manipulation after detorsion, and avoid providing unnecessary assistance.
The relationship between intrinsic coagulation disorders, including factor XI deficiency, and stillbirths of unknown cause (aka fetal losses) was studied in breeding Japanese Black cattle. Among the 129 breeding cattle investigated, the frequency of the factor XI deficiency mutant gene was 26.4%. There were no significant differences in prothrombin time (PT) among the mutant allele homozygous (mutant homologous) group, the mutant allele heterozygous (heterologous) group and the normal homozygous (normal homologous) group; however, there were significant differences in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) among these groups. The frequency of fetal losses was significantly higher in the mutant homologous group than the mutant heterologous group and the normal homologous group, and the odds ratio of fetal loss frequency between the normal homologous group and the mutant homologous group was 2.72 (95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.84). To investigate the relationship between intrinsic coagulation factors other than factor XI and fetal losses, 71 cattle in the normal homologous group were divided into two groups — one in which APTT was extended for 20 seconds or longer than the median value (the extension group) and a non-extension group — and PT and fetal loss frequency were compared between the two groups. A significant difference was not found in PT, but was found in APTT and fetal-loss frequency between the groups. The odds ratio of fetal-loss frequency between the extension group and the non-extension group was 3.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-9.40). Also, the odds ratio of fetal-loss frequency between the non-extension group and the mutant homologous group was 3.77 (95% confidence interval: 1.39-10.18). These results indicate that intrinsic coagulation factor disorders including XI factor deficiency may be involved in fetal losses in Japanese Black cattle.
A Japanese Akita dog presented with blepharospasm and was diagnosed as having chronic pan-uveitis with of unknown cause. Steroid treatment improved the clinical signs and the treatment was discontinued. Subsequently, the dog presented with vision loss and bullous retinal detachment was observed. The clinical signs again improved with steroid treatment and once again treatment was discontinued. The third time, the dog presented with vision loss and secondary glaucoma had developed. The owner ordered euthanasia. After euthanasia, uveodermatologic syndrome was diagnosed via autopsy by characteristic pathological findings. Immunohistochemical analysis of the globes revealed CD3-positive T lymphocytes as the predominant infiltrating lymphocyte type, which was in contrast to a previous report detailing mainly B lymphocytes.
Eyelid sutures and medical treatments were carried out for a 10-month-old Boston terrier with extensive corneal injuries after a fire, including a deep corneal ulcer in the right eye and a corneal perforation in the left eye. At day 14, an improvement in corneal thickness was observed in both eyes. That same day, a decrease in the diameter of the left eye and a reduction in the curvature of the cornea (a flattening) were observed. At day 28, the corneal thickness of both eyes had improved, and the corneal diameter and curvature of the left eye had recovered. At day 301, the corneal shape was almost recovered in both eyes, and corneal transparency was improved by a possible iris show through. For patients with extensive corneal injuries after a fire, including a deep corneal ulcer and a corneal perforation, eyelid sutures and appropriate medical treatment, including preventing infection, controlling inflammation and maintaining humidity, is a useful therapy for recovering corneal shape and maintaining visual capacity.
During the period from 2006 to 2009, the prevalence of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in the oral cavity of calves raised at Farm A in Yamaguchi Prefecture was examined. STEC was isolated in 24 out of 186 oral samples (12.9%). Among the 27 strains of the 24 positive samples, the predominant O serogroup was O26 (13 strains), followed by O untypeable (5 strains), O8 (4 strains), O111 (3 strains) and O119 (2 strains). The strains' antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 different drugs resulted in 24 strains (89%) being resistant to one or more drugs. Among the resistant strains, four O8 and one O111 strains showed resistance to ciplofloxacin, whereas one O26 strain was resistant to fosfomycin. From the results of a pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis on the O26 and O111 strains, several strains in each serogroup showed identical or similar patterns, indicating that horizontal transmission of the same clones had occurred among the calves at the farm.