We investigated the conditions and factors associated with the onset of bovine leukosis in 18 Holstein cows from July to November 2009. Physical examinations revealed abnormalities in 22% cows, while blood tests revealed abnormal lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 57% cows. Histological examinations revealed diffuse, large cell lymphosarcoma in all cows. T-cell lymphoma was detected in a 29-month-old cow without bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection, while B-cell lymphoma was observed in the remaining 17 cows aged ≥45 months with BLV genotype I. Immunohistochemical examinations detected p53 proteins in 29% of leukemic cows with a significant difference compared with that in the control. PCR analysis did not detect bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) in any cow. Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3 allele 1501 was detected in 75% of leukemic cows; allelic frequency was 41% and there was a significant difference compared with that in the control. These findings suggest that nearly all cases of bovine leukosis in this study were enzootic bovine leukosis with BLV genotype I, that onset of bovine leukosis does not necessarily require BIV infection, and that p53 and BoLA-DRB3 alleles play some role in the onset of bovine leukosis.
Fourteen dogs reared in a breeding kennel where an outbreak of canine brucellosis was identified were shown to be positive for anti-Brucella canis antibodies by microtiter agglutination (MA) and ELISA. After being isolated from antibody-negative dogs, they were administered doxycycline hydrochloride and marbofloxacin. The positive rates of both tests declined until 8 weeks after the start of administration, after which they elevated again to 27.3% in the MA and 63.6% in the ELISA at week 16. These results demonstrate the usefulness of antibody tests for monitoring therapeutic efficacy and also suggest ELISA has high sensitivity in antibody detection. Meanwhile, 66 dogs at the same kennel found to be negative were treated with single-agent administrations of doxycycline hydrochloride, and both antibodies remained negative during the 32-week observation period. On the basis of these results, we concluded that tetracycline monotherapy can provide sufficient prevention of infection in antibody-negative dogs when other appropriate measures are immediately taken, such as isolation of infected dogs and disinfection of the facility.
A 3-year-old female Miniature Schnauzer presented with right atrial and right ventricular enlargement. An abnormal blood vessel-like structure connecting to the right atrium was observed on echocardiogram, although a definite diagnosis was not made. Other conditions that could cause right-heart dilation, such as pulmonary hypertension, atrial septal defect, or tricuspid valve regurgitation, were not revealed. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and cardiac catheterization were performed. An increase in oxygen saturation within the right atrium was observed in an oxymetry run. CTA revealed that pulmonary vein of the right anterior lobe was connected to the right atrium, which resulted in a definitive diagnosis as a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection.
A 5-month-old male Russian Blue cat with a chief complaint of dysuria similar to urethral atresia, along with difficulty in standing on both hind limbs in several days, was referred to a primary veterinarian. Inflammation of the lower urinary tract was suspected and treatment was started. A neurological examination revealed a mild head tremor and upper motor neuron paresis of the hind limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensities around the ventricles, the brain meninges to the lumbar spine, and spinal parenchyma. Based on these findings, the antibody test results, and results from feline coronavirus (FCoV) genetic tests using serum and cerebrospinal fluid, a central nervous system-type of feline infectious peritonitis/type I FCoV was strongly suspected. Urethral atresia is a condition frequently encountered in male cats. For juveniles, there is a need to distinguish this condition from a neurological disease caused by a FCoV infection, and a prudent explanation to the owner is important.
A total of 101 β-hemolytic streptococci isolates including 91 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (S. equisimilis) and 10 Streptococcus porcinus (S. porcinus) were obtained from septicemia-type verrucous endocarditis samples of pigs slaughtered in Kagoshima Prefecture. These S. equisimilis isolates were categorized into Lancefield group C (74 isolates) and untypable (17 isolates). Antimicrobial strains for amynoglycosides, tetracyclines, and macrorides were 72 (79.1%), 74 (81.3%), and 38 (41.8%), respectively. Nineteen aminoglycosides-resistant isolates harbored the aph (3')- III a gene. The tet(O) and tet(M) genes were detected from 46 and 17 tetracyclines-resistant isolates, respectively. The ermB and mefA genes were detected from 31 and 6 macrolides-resistant isolates, respectively. Our study demonstrated that S. equisimilis harboring antimicrobial-resistant genes have emerged among pigs in Kagoshima Prefecture.