Bacteriological investigation and field survey of Rhodococcus equi infection were conducted at eight Taishu horse farms in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture and at six Miyako horse farms in Miyako, Okinawa Prefecture. R. equi was isolated from ten of seventeen fecal samples (59%) and four of seven fecal samples (57%) collected from Taishu and Miyako horses, respectively, and from the all of the soil samples obtained from their environment. Of the 100 fecal and 230 soil isolates from the Taishu horse farms and of the thirteen fecal and 100 soil isolates from the Miyako horse farms, none was found to be positive for the virulence-associated antigen gene (vapA) by PCR, demonstrating that all the isolates were avirulent R. equi. According to an interview for the farmers in Tsushima and Miyako, no outbreak of R. equi infection has been identified in these areas so far.
Twenty-one pregnant Holstein cows were divided into two groups, supplemented cows and control cows. The supplemented cows (n=11) were fed the basal diet each day with the trace mineral complex (50g/cow/day), including Zn, Mn, Cu and Se etc., from four weeks before they were expected to calve through to eight weeks after calving. The control cows (n=10) were given the basal diet without the trace mineral complex. The supplemented cows had significantly higher serum concentrations (P<0.05) of Cu and Zn than those of the control cows. In addition, the serum AST activity of the supplemented cows was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of control cows. Moreover, the prevalence of postpartum disorders in the supplemented and control cows was 18% and 50%, respectively. The first service conception rates in supplemented and control cows were 64%, and 30%, respectively. Cystic follicles occurred in only four of the control cows, and the occurrence was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Cu-deficient cows compared with the other cows at one week after calving. Besides, the prevalence of mastitis in Cu and Zn deficient cows was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of Cu and Zn sufficient cows at one week after calving. In conclusion, Cu and Zn supplementation to diet during the transition period may reduce the occurrence of postpartum disorders and follicular cysts, and may improve fertility in dairy cows, when the feed contains an adequate amount of these substances.
The objective of this study was to determine feed intake and digestibility in Japanese black cattle with growth retardation. In the growth-retarded cattle, the feed intake of dry matter (DM) was normal (2.52±0.05%BW), and their intake met both the nutrient requirements of crude protein (CP) and metabolizable energy for a daily gain of 0.6kg. Moreover, the digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, ether extracts, non-fibrous carbohydrate and gross energy in the growth-retarded cattle was the same as in the control group. Reduced feed intake and digestibility can therefore be excluded as a cause of growth retardation in growth-retarded cattle.
A computed tomography (CT) examination of a Shih Tzu (13-year-old female) with a nasal obstruction showed cystic radiolucency in the maxillary bone. Swelling of the gingiva in the maxillary premolar region was found through an oral examination and was extirpated. The nasal-obstruction disappeared on the day following the operation. A radiographic and CT examination conducted three months postoperatively showed no recurrence of the lesion. Histopathologically, a stratified-squamous-epithelium and ciliated columnar-epithelium were observed. Based on these histopathologic, clinical and CT findings, the cystic lesion in the maxillary premolar region was diagnosed as an odontogenic cyst. A maxillary odontogenic cyst may cause clinical signs such as nasal obstruction. An odontogenic cyst is therefore a disease which should be treated by surgical extirpation.
A 12-year-old neutered male Pomeranian was evaluated for slight inappetence and fatigue. Serum biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminemia and hyperproteinemia with monoclonal gammopathy. An IgM gammopathy was demonstrated by immunoelectrophoresis. Moderate anemia was detected in the CBC, but lymphocytosis and atypical lymphocyte were not observed. General radiographs revealed no evidence of bone lesions, but splenomegaly was detected. Primary macroglobulinemia was suspected based on these findings. After the dog was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone, a complete remission was seen for four months. At recurrence, treatment with doxorubicin and melpharan resulted in a slight remission forthree months.
A one-yearold Welsh Corgi Pembroke was referred to Azabu University, Veterinary Teaching Hospital (AUVTH). Following a hematological examination, the dog was suspected as suffering from idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. This dog had been treated with predonisolone and immune suppressive agents by the referring veterinarian, but without obvious improvement. At AU-VTH, an intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was performed and thrombocytopenia was improved. Subsequently, a splenectomy and administration of predonisolone were also carried out as a maintenance treatment. At the time of this report, this dog was still alive and doing well without relapse more than two years after completion of the treatment.
A one-year-old male Dachshund (Miniature Smooth-haired, light brown hair, weighing 3.7 kg) with clinical signs of myalgia and astasia was diagnosed with polymyositis based on clinical signs such as an abnormal nee-dle electromyogram (fibrillation potential and positive sharp waves) and marked elevation of creatine phos-phokinase activity. The dog also had exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). The condition improved rapidly with aggressive administration of prednisolone and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.
Disinfection against four enveloped animal disease viruses and two non-enveloped viruses (foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV)) using nano pico ozone water was studied. Aclear disinfecting effect of this ozone water was observed with more than 100ml in volume (4mg/l), but the effect was observed immediately after mixing. The effective concentration against enveloped viruses and FMDV was 1mg/l, but more than 3mg/l was required for SVDV. The disinfecting effect of ozone water was influenced by organism contamination, but the disinfecting effect was continued 60min after generation against enveloped viruses and FMDV. Nano pico ozone water could be used for disinfection against animal disease viruses, because of its effectiveness at low concentrations and immediate effect.