A total of 26 strains of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens with colibacillosis were investigated for the pathological feature β-lactamase productivities, serotypes and molecular epidemiological characteristics including sequence types (STs) analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and phylogenetic groups. The most prevalent characteristics were O2:H－, ST95, and phylogenetic group B2; and O25:H4, ST131, and B2 (four strains each). Fifteen (58%) of the 26 isolates possessed β-lactamase gene (s) including blaCMY-2 (nine strains), blaTEM-1 (seven strains), blaCTX-M-15 (one strain), blaCTX-M-2 (two strains), and blaSHV-2 (one strain). In the β-lactamase gene-positive strains, the prevalence rate of the three virulence-associated genes (VAGs), iss, iucD, and papC, was significantly high (P＜0.05), and the prevalence of the other five VAGs (astA, irp2, tsh, vat, and cva/cvi) tended to be high compared to the β-lactamase gene-negative strains. These results suggested that the β-lactamase gene and VAGs were likely to be conserved in E. coli that caused avian colibacillosis. It is necessary to observe the diffusion of avian pathogenic E. coli, because we found E. coli strains possessing extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes (i.e. blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-2, blaSHV-2) and O25:H4 (ST131 and B2) strains, which were the major type of ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from patients.
On a swine farm in Iwate Prefecture, 29 of 85 suckling piglets delivered by eight sows over a period of nine days died or were destroyed due to poor prognosis from four to 19 days of age. Three affected piglets demonstrating pyrexia and nervous symptoms such as tremors and opisthotonus were examined at 15, 18 or 19 days of age. The principal lesions were characterized by fibrinopurulent inflammation of the meninges, choroid plexuses and ventricular walls, and were more prominent in the meninges and choroid plexuses. Inflammation was also found on the synovium on several limbs as well as the peritoneal, pleural and pericardial surfaces. Escherichia coli O166 antigens were found in the lesions. E. coli O166 was isolated from the brain, synovia and several visceral organs. Four genes, fimA, iucD, iroN and iss, were detected from the isolates, although no genes associated with diarrhea were detected. Serum antibodies against the isolates were identified in the affected piglets, as well as their dams. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in the three affected piglets were 7.1, 2.1, and 5.0 mg/ml, respectively. In 46 suckling piglets delivered by four dams after the disease disappeared, the serum IgG levels ranged from 1.1 - 20.3 mg/ml, 6.4 - 17.2 mg/ml differences in littermates. These results suggest that the examined piglets suffered from meningitis resulting from primary septicemia caused by extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli O166 infection.
Twenty-four strains of Pasteurella multocida, one strain of P. canis, and one strain of P. pneumotropica were isolated from companion animals in a hospital from 2006 to 2013. Pasteurella spp. were mainly isolated from subcutaneous abscesses. These isolates were susceptible to almost all antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial drugs such as cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were mainly administered for the treatment of Pasteurella infections. However, 3 of 26 cases died despite the administration of the drugs. It was considered that Pasteurella spp. had caused the infections in the companion animals and might sometimes cause severe infections.
A seven-year-old intact female miniature dachshund was referred with progressive anemia and hematochezia. During a colonoscopy, dilated mucosal vessels and bleeding lesions were identified in the colon. The dog did not appear to respond to antibiotic and immunosuppressive therapy, and required repeated blood transfusions. Since the colonic mucosal specimens displayed slight vessel dilation on histopathological examination, we strongly suspected colonic vascular ectasia. We therefore experimentally used estrogen-progesterone (EP) therapy (ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone) and benazepril. With the therapy, the symptoms improved, and long-term care was achieved at home without further blood transfusions.
An adult female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) showed respiratory symptoms over an 8-month period, and died at a zoo in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. At necropsy, the lungs were edematous and grayish-white in color. The tracheal and bronchial lumens contained a large amount of foamy fluid. Histologically, the lungs had marked interstitial fibrosis, thickening of alveolar septa, destruction of alveolar structure and infiltration of lymphocytes. The histologic appearance was heterogeneous and the fibrotic foci comprised mainly dense collagen fibers. In the areas of marked fibrosis, honeycomb lesion, hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes and proliferation of myofibroblasts were detected. There were no lesions indicating infection in the lungs. In bacteriological examinations, no pathogenic bacterium was isolated from the major organs. These findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in humans and cats.