The nasal swabs from bovine pneumonic cases were bacteriologically examined from 1986 to 1995. One hundred and forty isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 23 of P. haemolytica, 137 of Mycoplasma bovis, 76 of M. bovirhinis and 104 of Ureaplasma diversum were obtained from 271 out of 329 (82.4%) cases. Of 271 cases, 105 (38.7%) were of mixed infection with Pasteurella and Mycoplasma and/or U. diversum. The Pasteurella isolates had high sensitivity to enrofloxacin (ERFX) and ampicillin, showing a minimum 50% inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of≤0.10μg/ml. Mycoplasmas had high sensitivity to ERFX, tylosin and lincomycin, showing an MIC50 of≤0.78μg/ml. On the other hand, susceptibility of Pasteurella and Mycoplasma to thiamphenicol and oxytetracycline was extensively variable, suggesting common distribution of the resistant strains to these drugs.
Twenty-five and 16 cases of the left and right abomasal displacement, respectively, 14 cases of the abomasal volvulus and 8 cases of the functional pyloric stenosis (vagal indigestion) in cows were comparatively examined for their urine characteristics. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher in cases with abomasal volvulus than in those without; while such higher gravity was not shown in cases with vagal indigestion and severe hypovolemia and electrolyte depletion. In cases with urine chloride concentration less than 10mEq/l hypochloremia and hypokalemia were observed with a tendency of metabolic alkalosis, as well as aciduria and hyponatremia.
One hundred and one Holstein-Friesian cows with various abomasal disorders were examined for electrolyte concentrations of the ruminal and abomasal fluid as well as of the blood. In cases with functional pyloric stenosis (vagal indigetion) and abomasal volvulus, rumen Cl levels were 66.0±21.2 and 24.4±13.1mEq/l, respectively, indicating a stronger reflux of abomasal contents into the rumen in cases with vagal indigestion. Cows with vagal indigestion showed significantly lower concentrations of the ruminal K and the abomasal Na. In cases with abomasal disorders showing ruminal Cl levels over 40mEq/l, serum concentrations of Na, K and Cl were lower and blood pH, bicarbonate concentration and base excess were higher. The volume of abomasal contents was negatively correlated with serum Cl concentration (r=-0.52), while directly with serum Mg (r=0.59).
In two farms in the same district of Gumma Prefecture, stillbirth, hard labors, and parturition of weak piglets in sow, as well as diarrhea, loss of vigor, and death within 1 week of age in piglets massively occured in 1987. The piglet mortality was over 30%. Histopathology revealed myocarditis, interstitial pneumonia and perivascular cuffing in the brain. Immunohistochemistry showed PRRS viral antigen in the lungs.
Injectable and tablet formulations of enrofloxacin (ERFX), a fluorinated quinolone derivative, was administered to dogs and cats with urinary tract infections at a basic dose of 5mg/kg a day for 5 days in principle. Clinical signs, bacteruria and pyuria were improved in most cases including those without response to other antibiotics. The isolated bacteria were revealed to be highly susceptive to ERFX and resistant to commonly used drugs. Some local and gastrointestinal disorders were seen in injected and tablet cases, respectively, while not of importance.
The efficacy of metoclopramide on medetomidine induced vomiting was estimated. Vomiting was induced in 60% of dogs after intramuscular administration of medetomidine (40μg/kg) with a mean repetition of 1.6 times. The intramuscular premedication of metoclopramide (0.4mg/kg) reduced the incidence of vomiting (33.3%) with a mean repetition of only one time after administration of medetomidine.
A female mongrel dog, 12-year-old presented a subcutaneus neoplastic nodule at the neck. One month later, many metastatic nodules formed at the ribs, femur and digital bones. Histopathology revealed that the original neoplasm as well as the metastatic ones was apocrine gland carcinoma remarkably undifferentiated in nature.
Three cases of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in slaughtered broiler chickens were subjected to pathological investigation. Multiple ulcerative craters and nodules were present in their feather tracts. Microscopy revealed formation of epithelial pearls and proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes in these lesions.
A total of 386 dogs and 122 cats were investigated for thermophilic Campylobacter. From April to August 1992, Campylobacter was isolated from 12 canine (3.1%) and 1 feline (0.8%) cases, and all the isolates were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The positive dogs were 7 of 52 (13.5%) younger than 1-year-old, 2 of 98 (2.0%) 1-to 3-year-old, 1 of 69 (1.4%) 3-to 5-year-old, 1 of 128 (0.8%) 5-to 10-year-old, and 1 of 37 (2.7%) over-10-year-old dogs, respectively. The carrier rates in diarrheic and non-diarrheic cases were 10.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Of 60-canine-isolates, 20 (33.3%) were resistant to penicillin (PC) and tetracycline (TC) and 2 (3.3%) to PC and ampicillin (ABPC), 5 (8.3%) to TC, and 3 (5.0%) to PC, respectively. Five isolates from a 2-year-old cat were susceptible to all the drugs examined.