Blood tocopherol, selenium, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and lipid peroxide levels were examined in dairy cows after injecting them intramuscularly with tocopherol of 1, 000mg (E group) or tocopherol of 1, 000mg and selenium of 50mg (ESe group) at a week interval from 8weeks before parturition. Serum and red blood cell tocopherol levels of the E group and control decreased from 2 weeks before parturition, and markedly low levels followed after parturition. However, red blood cell tocopherol of the ESe group remained high levels. Serum selenium and blood GSH-Px activities of the E group and control showed low levels, and especially indicated deficient levels just before and after parturition. Blood GSH-Px activities in the ESe group elevated significantly (p<0.05) after 5weeks of selenium injection, and showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels than the E group and control. Then, serum lipid peroxide levels of the E group and control after parturition increased markedly, but for the ESe group slightly.
Metatarsal fracture in a 20-month-old Holstein-Friesian Heifer was treated by applying internal fixation using two V-shaped pins (14 and 10mm) and externally fixed for 45days by casting with two vinyl chloride pipes cut lengthwise. Severity of lameness gradually decreased and at four months postsurgery the subject could walk with a mild degree of lameness. At a year after surgery, walking was almost normal with full weight given placed on the affected limb. Fracture healing assessed radiographically was not fast, but 4 months after surgery, the fractured area had new bone growth with a periosteal callus formation. The cow again showed severe lameness 5.5 years after surgery because of the severe degenerative changes in the fetlok joint of the affected limb and euthanatized. For a 5.5 year-observation period, the cow gave birth to six calves during five calvings and yielded an average of 8, 618kg of milk per year. The above demonstrates that the surgical therapy for the cow was successful without any harmful influence to the subject.
Using phytohemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and concanavalin A, a lymphocyte blastogenesis test was performed for peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from six healthy calves, three calves affected with pneumonia and nine congenitally weak calves, whose conditions were confirmed clinically and macroscopically. Mean stimulation indices±standard error in healthy calves, calves with pneumonia, three weak calves and the other weak calves were, respectively, 53.3±22.0, 13.2±5.8, 2.8±0.45 and 61.7±19.3 with PHA, and 61.0±15.1, 6.1±2.1, 8.4±4.4 and 71.5±34.6 with PWM. These results suggest that some calves with a low immune response may be included in congenitally weak calves and that this test is useful for finding calves with a congenital low immune response.
From February to March 1990, a farmer breeding about 120 milk and hybrid cows administered vitamin A, D, E preparations (A: 2, 000, 000IU/day, D: 1, 000, 000IU/day, E: 800IU/day) everyday to 15calves ranging in age from 7 to 10days. Consequently, all animals showed a loss of vigor, anorexia, depilation, and dysbasia, and 6calves died 13-27days after the start of the administration. Three were autopsied and found to have brownish-red depositions on the endothelial surface of the aorta and pulmonary arteries and slight discoloration of the liver. Histologically, swelling and vacuolation were noted in the hepatic Itoh cells, The blood chemical test detected serum retinal palmitate in 6 of 8cases (75.0%). All animals showed remarkable increases in plasma 25-OH-D (561.9±77.4ng/dl) and serum Ca (14.4±1.3mg/dl). The above findings led to a diagnosis of these cases as hypervitaminosis AD, and a pre-hyena disease state was suspected in view of physical occlusive insufficiency.
Postmortem examination of a suckling pig with vomiting and diarrhea on a swine farm, where the similar cases were frequently detected, revealed severe gastric dilatation and loss of the acidic smell from the stomach. Furthermore, localized white thickened foci were found in the stomach. Histopathologically, prominent infiltration by neutrophils was observed in the mucous membrane of the affected stomach. Blastoconidia and pseudohyphae of a fungus were detected in the lesion by periodic acid Schiff and Grocott's stains and were positive by an immunostaining method using anti-Candida serum. Dilatation of the gastric gland and swelling or degeneration of the glandular cells were also found in the stomach other than the fungal lesion. In addition, degenerative changes were seen in the esophagus, intestines and kidneys. So far as we know, this may be the first report on swine gastric candidiasis in Japan.
Polymerization of benzylpenicillin (PCG) kept in replacement solutions for 4hr was detected by UV absorption and gel chromatography. The PCG degradation rate measured by UV absorption at 320nm was higher in acidic saline (pH 5) than in higher pH saline solutions. The highest rate of PCG degradation was observed in the 5% dextrose solution (pH 3.5-6.5) among the 5 commercial replacement fluids. By gel chromatography, polymerization of 0.1% PCG was detected in the 5% dextrose solution, which elicited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxic response in guinea pigs sensitized passively with anti BPO-BPO IgG type sera. Various degrees of degradation and antigenicity were observed in 4 cephem antibiotics kept in a 5% dextrose solution for 3hr. These results suggested that PCG stored in replacement solutions for more than 2hr might elicit antigenicity in animals.
Pollution by Toxocara eggs of child sandpits in 168 public parks in the Higashi-harima region, Hyogo Prefecture was investigated from June to August. 1989. Toxocara eggs were detected from the sandpits in 37 (22.0%) parks. The larva-containing eggs (infective to humans) were detected from 12 (7.1%) parks. Urban parks were highly polluted at a rate of 32.3%(31/96) with rural parks having a much lower rate of 8.3%(6/72). The sandpits with dog's excrement were highly polluted at a rate of 47.1%(16/34). It is easy for infants to be infected with Toxocara in sandpits polluted by the eggs, judging from the infant's poor knowledge of hygiene. It will be necessary to take preventive measures in the near future.