Ninety bull calves for fattening and thirty heifer calves of the Holstein breed were classified into five growth stages (stage I: 7 days old; stage II: 1 month old; stage III: 3 months old; stage IV: 6 months old; stage V: 12 months old; stage VI: 17 to 18 months old) and blood chemical components including serum lipid fractions, vitamin A, vitamin E (tocopherol), selenium and blood glutathioneperoxidase activity were examined during each of these growth stages. During the fattening stage (stage V to VI) of bull calves, serum lipid fractions including total lipid, phospholipid, total cholesterol, ester cholesterol and lipid peroxide, and serum tocopherol levels increased significantly compared with the levels of heifer calves in the same growth stages, but the levels of serum retinol and erythrocyte tocopherol decreased to the contrary. There were many correlations between the level of serum tocopherol and the serum lipid compositions including phospholipid, total cholesterol and total lipid. The increase in the serum lipid levels during the fattening stage of bull calves seemed to reflect the development of the fatty tissue. Also, the decrease in erythrocyte tocopherol which is an indication of bioavailable tocopherol might be caused by the increase in the shift to fatty tissue of tocopherol. The serum selenium level and blood glutathioneperoxidase activity decreased markedly from stage V to VI for the heifer calves, and it was suggested that the decrease in both blood components was due to the low selenium diet.
Nine foals with various long bone fractures were surgically corrected with a compression plating using a compression device. Two foals with compound fractures of the radius and metacarpus were destroyed 3 and 6 months after the operation because of infectious osteomyelitis. Two other cases showed mild postoperative infections, but were successfully treated using antibiotic therapy. In the foal with a metacarpal fracture, a fiberglass cast was applied for two months after surgery. In the case of the communited fracture of the olecranon, the displacement occurred after the operation and a second operation was performed. In 7 of the 9 foals operated, the plates were ren oved two to three mouths after the surgical corrections. Radiographically, little visible callus formation was seen in the sites of the fracture, indicating that the fracture union was achieved in the course of primary healing. It is thougth that the most benefical usage of this method is early pain releaf and early locomotor recovery. This method may also decrease the incidence of postoperative complications which are often seen in the case using other surgical techniques or conservative treatments.
Escherichia coli isolated from suckling piglets on three farms was examined regarding the production of enterotoxins, expression of fimbriae, sensitivity and resistance patterns to tetracycline (TC), kanamycin (KM), streptomycin (SM), ampicilin (ABPC), chloramphenicol (CP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and the prevalence of R plasmid. Sixty-five of 114 strains produced enterotoxins, and 53 of these strains expressed K88, K99 or 987P fimbriae. All the strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) indicated a resistance to each of the six drugs tested, but seven strains (14.3%) of E. coli, not producing enterotoxins, were sensitive to all the drugs tested. R plasmid was found in 59 (55.1%) of 107 drug resistant E. coli. E. coli C-600 strain transferred drug resistsnce from five strains of ETEC produced a heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Single plasmids of about 70 or above 96 megadalton in size were found in E. coli transferred ST and drug resistance to KM or ABPC.
A 19-month-old Corredale ewe suffering from cryptogenic dysstasia from September to November in 1989 was dissected and examined by the histological method. The sheep was smaller than healthy sheep of the same age. At necropsy, no significant gross lesions were found in any of the organs and tissues including the central nervous system. Histopathologically, there were many vacuolated nerve cells and status spongiosus mainly in the brain stem, and this case was diagnosed as being scrapie. Scrapie associated fibril (SAF) proteins were also detected from the brain extract of this sheep using the Western blot analysis. So far, in Japan, there has been no case of scrapie that lacked scratching. Therefore, veterinarians who examine sheep clinically and pathologically should consider such a condition as has been reported here.
Three cases of Hepatozoon canis (H. canis) infection in dogs, which has never been reported in Japan recently, were found from October 1989 to September 1990 in Miyazaki Prefecture. Case 1: a 3-year-old female beagle was presented to our clinic with anorexia, depression, weight loss, pain in the lumber region, and uncurable suppurative traumas in the left hip bone and the left elbow. This dog died 14 days later, although it was treated with tetracycline. Case 2: a 3-year-old male Shetland sheepdog, was presented to our clinic with anorexia, depression, and anemia. This dog was diagnosed as Babesia gibsoni infection. Although it was treated with diminazene diaceturate, the clinical signs associated with babesiosis recurred 5 times during 4 months. After the combined treatments with diminazene diaceture and tetracycline, it recovered from the severe illness. Case 3: a 5-month-old male beagle, was presented to our clinic with anorexia, depression, vomiting and jaundice with leptospirosis being suspected. Although treated with fluid therapy and tylosin, it died 4 days later. In these three dogs gametocytes (or gamonts) of H. canis were found in the leukocytes in the Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smears. The parasitic rate of leukocytes in cases 1, 2 and 3 were about 10%, 0.8%, and 2.2%, respectively. Schizonts (or meronts) were found in the bone marrow and spleen of cases 2 and 3. The persistent and relatively high level of serum creatinine phosphokinase in case 2 during the 4 months observation period might be due to stimuli by the schizonts in the muscle. These cases were diagnosed as H. canis infection complicated with another underlying disease.
It has been recommended that diets for the management of canine obesity should be prescribed on the basis of providing 60% of the calculated maintenance requirement at the ideal body weight. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate effects of a commercial weight-reduction diet on an overweight beagle. During this experiment the optimal calorie intake and changes in body weight of the obese dog were determined. Additionally, hematological and serum biochemical analysis were performed. The body weight before the experiment was 19.44 kg. When the weight-reduction regimen started, the authors estimated that the optimum body weight of the beagle was 15 kg. The diets were changed from the usual dog food to the prescribed one. The metabolizable energy intake was restricted from 700 to 506 kcal/day, and again to 440 kcal/day: that is, the calorie intake decreased to approximately 70% and 60% of the initial calorie intake, respectively. During this experiment, this dog lost 4.5 kg in weight over 3 months, reaching the target weight. While being fed the restrictive weight-reduction diet, the dog's body weight remained between 14.5 and 15.0 kg. When ad lib feeding using normal dog food was recontenued, the dog quickly regained the same energy intake level as the pre-experiment one, resulting in an increase in body weight The blood and serum chemistry profile revealed no abnormalities before the test. The thyroidal function was normal. From these results, the patient was diagnosed as simple obesity. During the diet treatment, laboratory findings showed few changes. However, when the dog returned to its former obese condition, the red blood cell count. hemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume decreased. Total cholesterol and β-lipoprotein markedly increased and HDL-cholesterol declined. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase only showed an increase. These results demonstrated that there was a particular case that the recommended feeding calolie “the maintanance requirement×60%” in the diet therapy would not have a sufficienteffectonoverweightdogs-In such an instance, the calorie intake before the weight reduction might be the important indication in regimens. It was revealed that the relapse of obesity after the body weight reduction was drastic, and that the body weight rapidly increased and lipid metabolic system was remarkably affected. These abnormalities, after we discontinued the calolie.restriction, might be explained as the rebound phenomena after diet theranv.
The gelatin-disk method was applied for the preservation of Campylobacter. This method was obviously superior to the conventional method such as the freeze-drying method. Especially, the recovery of viable organisms was excellent when the organisms were preserved in the disk that was prepared by mixing 5 volumes of a 10% sucrose solution added with 3% skin milk, 1 volume of a 5% ascorbic acid solution and 5 volumes of a 20% gelatin solution. The reduction rates of viable organisms of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) immediately after making the disks were less than 3 and 1 log CFU/disk, respectively. The viable organisms were recovered 3 weeks after the preservation at 10°C, even at 35°C in the case of C. coli. The recovery rate increased further when the dissolving broth containing a 5×10-3M magnesium sulfate was used in comparison with the dissolvent without magnesium sulfate.