We examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 52 Mycoplasma bovis isolated from cattle with respiratory disease and the nucleotide sequence of domain V in 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) associated with macrolide (ML) resistance. Resistance to tylosin (TS) was found in three isolates (5.8%). Of the three isolates, two (3.8%) were resistantce to lincomycin (LCM). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tilmicosin ranged from ≦0.1 to ＞100μg/ml; 24 isolates exhibited a high MIC of tilmicosin (＞100μg/ml). Resistance to enrofloxacin and kanamycin were found in two and one isolates, respectively. All the isolates were susceptible to oxytetracycline, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, and tiamulin. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that one of the two TS-LCM-resistant strains had an A to G mutation at position 2058 in domain V of 23S rRNA. However, no mutations were detected in the domains of other ML-resistant or low-susceptible strains. These findings suggests that M. bovis may acquire ML resistance through alternative resistant mechanisms, in addition to mutations in domain V 23S rRNA.
Survey data on pet behavioral changes and owner responses over a three-month period were collected from 15 owners of dogs diagnosed with blindness. The data showed increases in aggression toward the owners (minor changes), inappropriate elimination (minor changes), reaction to noises or odors (moderate changes), the amount of time spent alongside the owners (major changes), collisions with objects/people (major changes), and sleeping/inactive periods (major changes). The surveys also indicated decreased barking (mod erate changes) and interest in going for walks (moderate changes). Collisions and stumbling were considered troublesome by the owners. Most owners had concentrated on speaking to their dogs more frequently, not changing the layout of their furniture, and advising others that their dog was blind. After three months, seven owners said they had become accustomed to life with their blind pet, and eight owners indicated that their pet had adjusted to life without sight. It is recommended that veterinarians inform owners of our results, as this will help them deal with the sorrow they feel when their dog is diagnosed as blind, and will also provide them with the appropriate understanding of the needs of their pets. For instance, owners should be informed of the facts that blind dogs attempt to compensate for their lack of vision through audition and olfaction, and that they require dietary management because of their reduced activity level, and require practical management to avoid collisions. This will assist blind dogs and their owners to gradually adjust to life without vision.
An eight-year-old female Yorkshire terrier presented with episodes of hyperpnea and stiffness of the limbs. A physical and neurological examination revealed rhythmic, undulating movement across the muscles of the trunk and limbs. This movement was characteristic of myokymia. An electromyogram demonstrated myokymicdischarges. The cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed mononuclear pleocytosis, which was indicative of inflammatory central nervous system disease. The MRI of the brain was unremarkable. A clinical diagnosis of myokymia/neuromyotonia with inflammatory brain disease was made, and the dog was treated with antibiotics, zonisamide and procainamide. A follow-up CSF analysis performed 5 months after the initial examination was normal. At present, 11 months after the diagnosis, the dog is still being treated with zonisamide and procainamide. No episodes of hyperpnea or stiffness of the limbs have been observed, and the myokymia has decreased markedly in frequency and severity.
A thirteen-month-old French bulldog was referred for evaluation of a protrusion in the pubic region. Physical examination, radiographs and histopathological testing of both gonads following a gonadectomy indicated that the dog was a male pseudohermaphrodite. The karyotype was 78, XX chromosome, and the canine SRY gene was negative. Therefore, the present case was diagnosed as a SRY negative XX male in a French bulldog.
The prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in wild boars in Gunma Prefecture, Japan was serologically and genetically examined from March 2006 to March 2008. The positive detection rates of IgG antibodies against HEV and HEV RNA in wild boars were 3.4% (3/87) and 2.1% (3/140), respectively. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the HEV ORF1 genes detected in the present study showed the same sequences and belonged to genotype Ⅲ. In addition, in a phylogenetic analysis, HEV genes detected from fattening pigs in the past study in Gunma Prefecture exhibited a significant vicinal character to those from the wild boars in this study that inhabited an area neighboring the HEV RNA-positive pig in the prior study. In Gunma Prefecture, HEV is comparatively widespread in wild boars, and uncooked meat or liver may be a potential vehicle for transmitting HEV to humans.