To estimate the effects on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of disinfectants used on Japanese farms, we investigated the effects on bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) and bovine adenovirus type 7 (BAdV-7), instead of FMDV, under conditions that mimicked field usage. We employed eight disinfectants : calcium hydroxide,sodium carbonate, citric acid, iodine, chlorine, aldehyde, disinfectant complex and quaternary ammonium compounds with a 0.1% sodium hydroxide. Among the disinfectants mixed with bovine excreta slurry, calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate inactivated both viruses. After mixing them with bovine raw milk, all disinfectants could inactivate both viruses except for chlorine on BAdV-7. After sprinkling the disinfectants on soil and compost, calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate could inactivate BRBV, and only calcium hydroxide could inactivate BAdV. These results suggested that FMDV on soil and compost might be inactivated by calcium hydroxide and sodium carbonate and that all disinfectants might inactivate FMDV in raw milk.
Mycoplasmas were isolated from nasal swabs taken from in 194 cattle raised on 26 farms in 11 prefectures in Japan from August to October 2010. A total of 146 cattle (75.3%) on 25 farms (96.2%) tested positive for the isolation of mycoplasmas, with M. bovis in 90 cattle, and M. bovirhinis and M. alkalescens in 62 and 16 cattle, respectively. The isolation rate of M. bovis in herds with respiratory and/or drop ear symptoms was higher than that in asymptomatic herds. The incidence of respiratory and/or ear drop symptoms and isolation rates of M. bovis were higher in 2 to 3 month-old calves than in other age groups. Differing isolation rates of M. bovis were not observed among Japanese black, Holstein, and crossbred cattle, although the incidence of respiratory and/or drop ear symptoms was higher in Holstein cattle.
A ten-year-old cat with poor appetite and vomiting was found in a laparotomy to have a mass in very close proximity to part of the cecum on the mesenterium. Histologically, the proliferation of large fibroblastic cells,the thick trabecular architecture of collagen fibers, and eosinophil infiltration were prominent in the mass.Immunohistochemically, large fibroblastic cells were positive for vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting that the cells would be myofibroblasts. Gram-negative bacilli associated with infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages were observed, and foreign bodies and the infiltration of multinucleated giant cells were also found in the lesions. Based on these findings, the case was diagnosed as feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.
From 2009 to 2011, we genotyped the proviral DNA of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) extracted from the tumor tissue of bovine leukemia (BL) cases in Yamagata prefecture using the PCR-RFLP method. We also confirmed the origin of tumor cells by immunohistochemistry. The results of these studies indicate that most BL cases featured BLV genotypes 1 or 3, and that the tumors of 12 of 13 cases originated from B cells. Based on the present study, it is suggested that BLV genotype 1 or 3 is linked to enzootic bovine leukosis in Yamagata prefecture.