The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with trehalose on oxidative-stress markers in the blood, milk and rumen fluid of dairy cows during the hot or comfortable season. The respective average maximum daytime temperatures in the hot and comfortable seasons were 34.2°C and 18.5°C. Six Holstein dairy cows housed in a freestall barn were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet or 1.5% trehalose-supplemented diet) following a 2×2 crossover study in both seasons. In the hot season, food intake increased in trehalose-supplemented cows (P＜0.01); while milk yield and milk components were unchanged by trehalose supplementation in both seasons. In terms of the number of protozoa, the number of Entodinium increased with trehalose supplementation in both seasons (P＜0.05). The values of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity in milk increased with trehalose supplementation in both seasons (P＜0.05). Furthermore, the values of DPPH radical scavenging activity in plasma tended to increase with trehalose supplementation in the hot season. Dietary supplementation with trehalose resulted in the improvement of antioxidant activity in milk and blood. These findings suggest that trehalose supplementation might be effective for reducing oxidative stress in dairy cows during the hot season.
A male cross-breed (Japanese black x Holstein-Friesian) calf exhibited chronic progressive abnormalities in gait, difficulty standing, and shaking, and had a wide stance in the standing position soon after birth. At 68 days old, the calf clearly exhibited consciousness but manifested astasia. Some cerebellar anomalies were suspected based on this history and clinical findings, although there were no obvious gross lesions in the brain at necropsy. Based on the histopathological findings of degeneration/loss of Purkinje cells and axonal swelling in the cerebellum, a diagnosis was given of cerebellar cortical degeneration. Most clinical cases of cerebellar cortical degeneration in cattle are thought to have a hereditary background; however, the current case is a cross-breed calf, which suggests that this disease is not confined to a specific breed.
Three hundred ninety-two budgerigars presented to the hospital were epidemiologically surveyed for Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (MO) infection. We also evaluated the clinical symptoms and effects of treatment in MO-positive birds. MO-positive rates were 15.3% for males, 7.5% for females, 16.8% for birds less than 1 year old, 9.5% for birds over 1 year old, and 13.0% overall (51 out of 392 birds). The rate of positivity for MO-positive birds with clinical symptoms was 76.5%. The clinical symptoms were as follows: wasting (54.9%), vomiting/vomiting–like action (33.3%), anorexia/abrosia (27.5%), and undigested feces (11.8%). The average number of days until the disappearance of MO with treatment was 18.4 days for birds less than 1 year old, 34.3 days for birds 1 to 3 years old, 21.0 days for birds 4 to 6 years old and 42.0 days for birds over 7 years old. The treatment response tended to worsen with age. MO has disappeared in all birds; however, three birds (5.9%) show no symptomatic improvement. We concluded that early diagnosis and treatment is important for the treatment of MO infections.
A histological examination of the atrioventricular (AV) conduction system was performed in a 12-year-old mixed-breed dog with complete AV block. The dog had undergone surgical resection of the fifth digit of the right forelimb for nail bed melanoma 11 months before its death. At necropsy, longitudinal and cross sections of the heart demonstrated extensive infiltration of dark brown or almost black neoplastic tissue into the myocardium. Histopathology of the affected myocardium provided a diagnosis of cardiac metastasis of malignant melanoma. Histological findings in the AV conduction system included severe infiltration of malignant melanoma cells into the AV nodal region, resulting in total disappearance of the AV node. In addition, severe neoplastic cell infiltration had entrapped the penetrating portion of the AV bundle, causing complete loss of conduction fibers. These neoplastic lesions on the AV conduction system were thought to have preceded the blockage of the AV conduction of cardiac impulses.
In Osaka Prefecture, a group case of leptospirosis in 11 dogs, including 9 deaths, occurred from October to November 2017. Epidemiological studies revealed that 9 of the dogs had walked along the same trail in the riverbed, and 4 dog owners lived in same town. In two cases, the anti-Leptospira interrogans serovar Australis antibody was detected using the microscopic agglutination test at 2,560 and 10,240 titers, respectively. In addition, leptospiral DNA was also detected in 1 blood sample and 1 urine sample from dogs in which the serotype could not be identified. According to the results, the current outbreak is suspected to have come from the same pathogenic foci or source of infection.