The isolation of Paenibacillus larvae is necessary for the definite diagnosis of American foulbrood. Recently rapid diagnostic techniques using the PCR method have been developed for use in this complex process. The present study applies the new gene-amplifying method called LAMP in detecting P. larvae and compares results with those obtained with conventional PCR. Our results showed that, although the detection sensitivity of LAMP was slightly inferior that of conventional PCR, both methods reacted specifically and uniquely to P. larvae. The advantage of LAMP over the PCR method is its being able to deliver a diagnosis at 63°C in 1 hour without requiring the use of special equipment. We conclude that LAMP can be employed for rapid auxiliary diagnosis in the laboratory.
PGF2α was administered to 242 anestrous draft mares to induce estrus. Thereafter fertility rates were estimated among the mares, according to their clinical conditions at the time of PGF2α administration. Covering rate after administration was 51.7%, fertility rate 48.8%, and pregnancy rate 25.2%. Fertility rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in mares in which rectal palpation demonstrated follicles less than 40mm in diameter than they were for animals with larger follicles. Foaling mares had higher pregnancy rates (P<0.05) than open mares. These findings may provide information useful in deciding whether a veterinary should consider using PGF2α as drug of first choice in inducing estrus in anestrous mares.
To clarify the etiology of white-line disease in Japanese Black (JB) cattle, the prevalence of white-line separation was investigated in 156 hooves (from 39 JB cattle) obtained from a slaughterhouse. Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis was used to extract factors that could affect the occurrence of white-line separation. Explanatory variables were age, body weight, and hoof configurations (toe length, toe angle, wall concavity, and wall ridges). Prevalence of white-line separation was shown to have no significance in the cases of the lateral and medial hooves of the fore and hind feet. The odds ratio of white-line-separation occurrence in JB cattle with toe lengths of >85mm was 6.51 (1.97-21.52/95% confidence limits) times those of toe lengths of ≤85mm. These results indicate that in JB cattle, white-line separation is related to weakness of the white line at ground surface caused by increased toe length.
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the benefit of microdensitometry by using X-ray radiographs to diagnose metabolic bone diseases in cats. X-ray radiographs of the right femurs of 24 healthy cats were obtained as normal controls. The images were taken by computed radiography (CR). Bone density and cortical bone indexes at 20 percentiles of the femur from the distal end were measured. Mean values and standard deviation of bone density in normal cats were 6.06±1.59mg/mm3. The corresponding values for cortical bone index were 0.33±0.05. The large variations occurring in bone density probably resulted from differences in femoral-muscle thicknesses among individuals. Cortical bone index, on the other hand, was almost constant regardless of age, sex, and body weight. Bone density and cortical bone indexes of three animals with chronic renal failure were measured and compared with those of healthy cats. The lower cortical-bone-index values found in two cases suggest active bone resorption and/or inhibition of mineralization secondary to renal dysfunction. These results indicate that microdensitometry is useful for clinical diagnosis of feline metabolic bone diseases. In addition, it has the merits of being noninvasive and inexpensive and of producing data rapidly.
A series of medical examinations of 2 cats with anorexia and vomiting revealed polycythemia and kidney swelling. Secondary polycythemia was suspected. Nephrectomy of the enlarged kidneys improved the polycythemia. Histopathological examination of the dissected kidneys led to a diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Erythropoietin levels at the time of initial examination were higher in both animals (case 1:27.0mIU/ml; case 2:27.8mIU/ml) than they are in healthy cats (mean 19.6±4.3mIU/ml). After surgery, erythropoietin levels decreased favorably (case 1:14.5mIU/ml; Case 2:14.5mIU/ml). Clearly reflecting the course of therapy, these results suggest that erythropoietin-level measurements may be useful in the diagnosis of secondary polycythemia.
A 9-month-old, castrated, domestic ferret suffering from anorexia, progressive weight loss, weakness, and renomegaly, was presented to the Animal Medical Center of the University of Tokyo. On the basis of the animal's history and of clinical examinations, including a test for antibodies against Aleutian-disease virus, a tentative diagnosis of Aleutian disease was made. In spite of supportive care, the patient's condition deteriorated; the ferret died 80 days after presentation. Postmortem examination, including histopathological and molecular-biological tests, revealed that the causative agent was of the ferret-derived Aleutian-disease virus strain.
An attempt was made to isolate vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) from chicken carcasses purchased from authorized small-scale poultry slaughter plants in Saitama City. Of 131 isolated enterococci, 3 isolates had the vanC gene and showed low-level resistance to vancomycin. It is suggested that both control measures against secondary contamination during carcass transport and disinfection of dressing equipment are critical to preventing bacterial contamination of poultry. In addition, monitoring and notification of plant sanitary status are essential preventative measures against the spread of VRE.