During the period 2003 to 2006, nine isolates and two detected genes of the bovine viral-diarrhea virus (BVDV) were recovered from six persistently infected (PI) cattle in Okayama Prefecture or commercial importedbovine fetal serum (FBS). Phylogenetic analysis of the 5' non-coding region (5'NCR) of the isolates whichare derived from PI cattle were classified as subtype BVDV-la (two isolates), lb (two isolates) and lc (threeisolates), and the isolates and detected genes derived from FBSs were classified as subtype BVDV-lb (1 isolate: derived from El Salvador), ld (1 isolate: derived from Canada) and lc (detected 2 genes: derived from Canada), respectively. Sequence analysis of the E2 gene suggested that the BVDV that was derived from Hokkaido was transmitted via a public pasture in Okayama Prefecture, and suggested that inappropriate active BVDV vaccine inoculation of the cattle in early pregnancy produced the PI calf. These results suggested thatanalysis of the E2 gene, which is more varied, in comparison with 5'NCR is useful in the epidemiological investigationof field BVDV isolates. The results of an examination of FBS suggested that BVDV-ld, which has beenisolated in Europe, has already been transmitted to Canada. This data demonstrated that BVDV-ld couldinvade Japan in the future through imported cattle.
The connection that blood-biochemical values and the results of embryo recovery collected from Japanese Black cows (n=30) have with the rates of NFC and DIP (NFC/DIP) in the feed were examined using regressionanalysis. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN, P<0.05) and the ratio of BUN to blood glucose (B/G, P<0.01) atthe initiation of superovulatory treatment showed a negative correlation with the number and rate of transferableembryos. The B/G level showed a negative correlation with the ratio of NFC/DIP in the feed. Moreover, the number of cows with ad>70% rate of transferable embryos significantly increased (P<0.05) when the valuesof BUN and B/G were <13mg/dl and <0.2, respectively. When the feed was changed at the time of estrusbefore superovulation treatment, the number and rate of transferable embryos were significantly higher in thehigh NFC/DIP group (NFC/DIP>5) than in the low NFC/DIP group (P<0.05).
Changes in the antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, isolated from pigsin Miyazaki between 2000 to 2006, were investigated. Fifty-six antimicrobial resistant bacteria were confirmedin the 80 isolates. The range of resistant rates to kanamycin, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol was at31.3%-87.5% for seven years. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim-resistant strains were isolated each year starting2002, and the range of resistant rates was 6.3%-21.4%. Ampicillin and norfloxacin maintained high activity withrespect to the isolates.
For five years, on a PRRS-positive farm with 500 sows, we have conducted tests with the aim of producingpigs testing negative for the PRRS virus (PRRSV) by injecting live PRRS vaccine into the sows 50-60 days afterservicing and 7-14 days after delivery (1 dose/head/time) and into the piglets after weaning (0.5 dose/head/time), after confirming that the percentage that were PRRS positive at 30 days of age had fallen from 100%to 20%. The pigs tested were divided into groups of five barrows weaned at 18 days and individual lots of sevenboars weaned at 22-27 days, and the lots were reared separately at two locations outside the farm immediatelyafter weaning. The group lot was tested four times (at the ages of 18, 46, 113 and 184 days) and the individuallot was tested three times (at the ages of 22-27, 86-91 and 174-179 days) by means of ELISA and RTPCR, and confirmed that all pigs were PRRSV negative. It is suggested, therefore, that it is possible to produce PRRSV negative pigs in a commercial PRRS positive farm.
A ferret (Mustela putorius furo) with alimentary lymphoma that showed resistance to combination chemotherapywas administered an alkylating agent, Lomustine, as the rescue therapy and achieved complete remission.Lomustine was administered at a dosage of 50 mg/m2 in a total of two doses at 28-day intervals, until remissionwas achieved. No marked toxic effects were observed. Remission duration after rescue therapy was 160 days.It was suggested that Lomustine could be considered a rescue protocol option for lymphoma in ferrets, as wellas in cats and dogs.
Plasma concentrations of two acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-acid glycoprotein (α1AG), were measured in seven dogs with acute pancreatitis. All dogs were positive for canine trypsin-like immunoreactivityin plasma at admission to our hospital (Day 0). High plasma concentrations of CRP (>5.0mg/dl) weredetected in four dogs, and high plasma concentrations of α1AG (>500, μg/ml) were found in two dogs. Onedog died on Day 3 with marked increases in plasma concentrations of both CRP and α1AG. Persistently higherconcentrations of both CRP and α1AG were detected in two dogs that required prolonged treatment for pancreatitis.In four dogs with a remarkable recovery, plasma concentrations of either CRP or α1AG returned tonormal ranges in the early stages of treatment. These findings suggest that serial measurements of plasmaconcentrations of both CRP and α1AG were useful markers for evaluating the effects of treatment and prognosisin dogs with acute pancreatitis.
We investigated that prevalence of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, and Salmonella in the feces of captured dogsat public health centers in Gunma Prefecture, Japan. Campylobacter and Arcobacter were detected in 13%(21/157) and 4%(6/157) of the dogs, respectively. No Salmonella was detected in the dogs examined in thisstudy. Of these Campylobacter positive dogs, C. jejuni was isolated from 16 dogs, and the Penner serogroupswere 0 (two dogs), R (two dogs), B (one dog), D (one dog) and untypable (ten dogs). C. coli was isolated fromthree dogs and C. upsaliensis from two dogs. Of the Arcobacter-positive dogs, A. cryaerophilus (group 1B) and A. butzleri were isolated from five dogs and one dog, respectively. The results suggested that, with restorationor transfer of the captured dog, veterinarians at public health centers or animal care and control centersneed to provide the new owner with zoonotic information and community life explanations.