To better understand the influence of breed of recipient dams and artificial colostrum feedings on the performance of male calves produced by embryo transfer (ET), ET-Japanese Black calves were divided into four groups by breed: recipient of Holstein-Friesian dams (HF), crossbred (Holstein×Japanese Black) dams (F1), Japanese Black dams (JB) and, as a negative control (NC), JB dams without colostrum but receiving an artificial colostrum. Male calves produced by artificial insemination of JB dams, receiving the dam's colostrum, were also provided as a positive control (PC). All calves were moved into individual pens on day 8, and were given the same commercial milk replacement. Calves were weaned at 61 days of age and monitored until 180 days of age. Mean live weights at birth were not significantly different among groups except for calves of HF, the weights of which were greater than other groups (P<0.05). Mean daily gains also showed no significant differences among the groups, including PC and NC. All calves were in a good healthy condition, which was also supported by changes in the level of blood parameters, irrespective of the breed of their dams. It was concluded that there was no appreciable effect of the breed of recipient dams on the performance of Japanese Black male calves. The artificial colostrum feeding did not show any adverse effect on the performance of ET-calves, although serum protein and globulin tended to be lower.
Six healthy Holstein cattle (mean weight 538kg) were injected with 500ml and 1, 000ml of 20% calcium gluconate in one site on different sides of the cervical subcutis at seven-to ten-day intervals. Two to three hours after the subcutaneous injection, the blood total (tCa) and ionized Ca (iCa) concentrations had increased 0.37 and 0.20mM/L, respectively, for the 500ml injection, and 0.78 and 0.41mM/L for the 1, 000ml injection. The biopsy samples of the injection site 24 hours after injection showed mild inflammation, such as edema, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration. Next, 1, 000ml of 20% calcium gluconate was divided into halves and injected subcutaneously into bilateral cervical sites in six multiparous Holstein cows within one to three hours of calving. The blood tCa and iCa concentration increased 0.79 and 0.34mM/L, respectively, and the significant increase persisted for 12 hours. The swelling of the injection site had almost disappeared after 12 hours. The authors believe that the injection of 1, 000ml of 20% calcium gluconate into one or two subcutaneous sites is safe and useful for the treatment of subclinical hypocalcemia in Holstein cattle.
A commercial competitive exclusion (CE) product was administered to one-day-old pheasant chicks using a sprayer to evaluate the ability of the product for controlling salmonellosis in pheasants. On day 7 after the treatments, concentrations of propionic acid, acetic acid, and total volatile fatty acids (mean±SDμmol/g) in cecal contents from the CE-treated pheasants were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those from untreated birds (0.83±0.23 versus 0.13±0.11, 4.95±0.79 versus 2.60±0.25, and 7.29±0.77 versus 4.63±0.54, respectively). One-day-old broiler chicks were also treated with the CE product as a sprayer or a feed supplement. On day 5 after the treatments, propionic acid concentration in the cecal contents from the sprayed chicks and the birds administered through feed reached the value of 4.45±1.98μmol/g and 5.85±0.30μmol/g, respectively, and their values were significantly higher (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) than 2.08±0.81μmol/g in untreated chicks. The results suggest that some of the bacterial organisms in the CE product may colonize in the ceca of the treated pheasants.
Two dogs with convulsions and other neurological signs were diagnosed with brain tumors based on computed tomographic findings. The most part of the tumor tissue could be excised using an ultrasonic surgical instrument through craniotomy, and a good prognosis was obtained in these cases. By histopathological examination, the tumor was diagnosed as meningioma and malignant meningioma, respectively.
Two dogs presented with severe gastric injuries associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. One dog had a gastric perforation associated with erroneous administration of Lornoxicam, a human drug. The other had multiple gastric ulcers associated with combination therapy involving carprofen and prednisolone.
Histiocytic sarcoma was observed in a 12-year-old Japanese Black cow. Neoplastic lesions were detected in the bone marrow, and the spleen and lymph nodes were enlarged. Hemorrhagic foci were seen in a number of organs. Examination of the blood showed a leukopenia and a depressed platelet count. Histologically, neoplastic cells resembling mature histiocytes revealed sheet-like or diffuse growth pattern in the bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes, and many showed erythrophagia in areas of severe hemorrhage. Immuno-positive reactions to lysozyme and HAM56 indicated that this neoplasm originated from histiocytes and was distinguishable from other lymphohematopoietic neoplasms with erythrophagocytosis.