To clarify the etiology and process of lesions of superficial pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens, we examined 32- and 48- to 50-day-old broiler chickens with gross lesions in the superficial pectoral muscles by histology of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Macroscopically, in 32-day-old chickens, mildly discolored, white striped lesions consistent with muscular fiber were observed in the superficial pectoral muscles. Histopathologically, hyaline degeneration, floccular degeneration, size heterogeneity and phagocytosis of muscle fiber were observed sporadically. In 48- to 50-day-old chickens, the lesions were more severe and more extensive than those in 32-day-old chickens, and flattening, discoloring, swelling and white striped lesions were observed macroscopically. Histopathologically, marked hyperplasia of collagenous fiber with regenerative changes of muscular fiber and proliferation of fibroblasts were found. In severe cases, thickened fascia with hyperplasia of collagenous fiber and neovascularization were found. The lesions in the superficial layer of the superficial pectoral muscle were the most severe, and deeper tissue had milder lesions. These findings suggested that the etiology of superficial pectoral myopathy may be associated with local circulatory disturbance.
A total of 283 nasal swabs collected from cattle during 76 respiratory disease outbreaks and 15 health condition surveys in the Kushiro area of Hokkaido between April 2012 and September 2014 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation for bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3). The RT-PCR results revealed 17 nasal swabs from eight outbreaks to be positive for BPIV3. BPIV3 was isolated from 14 nasal swabs from seven surveys. A sequence analysis of seven BPIV3 isolates from seven cattle revealed that five BPIV3 isolates were of genotype A, and two were of genotype C. Furthermore, the genotype A isolates, including USA and China strains, could be subdivided into four subgenotypes. In addition, since the current RT-PCR method could not detect genotype C isolates, we designed two primer sets: one could detect both genotype A and C viruses and the other could detect genotype C viruses alone. These primers have sufficient specificity and sensitivity.
A 24-month-old Japanese black female fattening cow presented with chronic diarrhea. Watery diarrhea was observed that included a mass of solid tissue, and a blood examination revealed poor nutritional status and eosinophilia. A bacterial culture of the feces revealed no bacterial activity, and a microscopic examination did not detect parasite ova. Moreover, a cytological examination suggested that the mass of solid tissue was the intestinal mucosa, which had detached due to eosinophilic inflammation. Eosinophilic enteritis was therefore diagnosed. However, we also detected chronically high levels of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and the recurrence of diarrhea was observed on days 16 and 47. The mycotoxin concentration was measured on days 60 and 120. The total aflatoxin level was 0.152 mg/kg on day 60 and 0.300 mg/kg on day 120 based on the leftover rice straw. The cow was therefore considered to have an outbreak of symptoms related to complications of aflatoxicosis. After the administration of adrenocorticosteroid and supplementation with a mycotoxin adsorbent, the nutritional status of the cow improved, and neither diarrhea nor eosinophilia have been observed since day 50. Accordingly, the present case was considered to be an incidence of eosinophilic enteritis accompanied by aflatoxicosis.
A female French bulldog was admitted to our veterinary hospital with symptoms of dyspnea and syncope seven days after an ovariohysterectomy for pyometra. On the first visit, cardiomegaly, a tumor-like mass on the pulmonary valve (15.0×5.8 mm), pulmonary valve stenosis, pulmonary arterial dilatation, and tricuspid regurgitation were observed. The clinical signs were improved with medication. On the 9th day, the dog was brought back to the hospital in an unconscious state. The mass on the pulmonary valve had increased in size (18.5×13.0 mm) and was observed to severely constrict the pulmonary valve. The dog suffered a cardiac arrest on the 12th day. The mass on the pulmonary valve was evaluated histopathologically as vegetation related to bacterial purulent pulmonary arteritis. We diagnosed it as a rare case of canine pulmonary valve infective endocarditis.
To ensure the safety of wild meat such as wild boar or wild deer meat, the microbiological inspection of wild meat has been performed annually in Kumamoto Prefecture since 2008. In February 2016, we investigated the microbiological inspection of eight wild boars and two wild deer, and isolated Salmonella Choleraesuis biotype Kunzendorf, resistance to penicillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, streptomycin, gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and the TEM-1 gene, in a wild boar liver. This finding indicates that multidrug-resistant Salmonella can pass to humans through wild boar meat. In addition, it suggests that wild boars captured in Kumamoto Prefecture are potential carriers of S. Choleraesuis and may be a source of Salmonella infection for domestic swine.