To develop a vaccination program against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) using live vaccines, the persistence of antibody following vaccination was estimated. Twenty breeding cattle raised on a dairy farm in the Nemuro district of Hokkaido were used for the experiment. The cattle were divided into the following three groups : ten were vaccinated once with a live BVDV1 vaccine (Group A), five were vaccinated with an inactivated vaccine (containing BVDV1 and BVDV2) after being vaccinated with the live vaccine (Group B), and five were left unvaccinated (Group C). In Group A, both anti-BVDV1 and anti-BVDV2 antibody titers increased and persisted during the three years of the study; no significant difference was recognized between Group A and Group B. Group C showed no significant increase in antibody titer, so natural BVDV infection might not occur during the period. Antibody induced by one-off vaccination with BVDV1 live vaccine was maintained for at least three years. Therefore, the one-off vaccination with BVDV1 live vaccine in the breeding period was an available method for the control of BVDV infection.
This study aims to clarify whether collagen peptide derived from salmon skin (MCP; marine collagen peptide) can affect the strength of bovine hoof connective tissue. MCP was administered orally to two adult cows at 0.2g/kg bodyweight for eight weeks. Then, connective tissue from three regions-dorsal, lateral and palmar aspect-of each fore-hoof was collected for the histological and biochemical investigations. The thickness of the dermis, number of fibroblasts, and diameter and density of collagen fibrils in the dorsal and lateral aspects in the MCP group significantly increased as compared with the control group. In the palmer aspect, the number of fibroblasts in the MCP group increased. Thickness of dermis, and diameter and density of collagen fibrils decreased. Moreover, increase in relative ratios of dermatan sulfate and type V collagen, which regulated fibril assembly, was also observed in this hoof region. Long-term MCP ingestion could increase the mass-average diameter (MAD) and strength index of connective tissue in the dorsal and lateral regions, but decrease the MAD in the palmer region. MCP may have potential for strengthening the connective tissue structure for maintaining the integrity and function of the dermis and dermal extracellular matrix in all hoof regions.
Adult mixed-breed dogs (n＝5) and cats (n＝4) with normal renal function were fed low-sodium and high-sodium diets while being provided with free access to water, and blood pressure and water intake were examined. When the animals were fed a high-sodium diet after acclimation to a low-sodium diet, water intake increased significantly in both dogs and cats and then decreased significantly when the low-sodium diet was reinstituted (P ＜0.05). Blood pressure showed no significant change in either animal group throughout the study period, except that one dog showed increases in overall blood pressure levels by ＞10% during the high-salt diet. These results indicate that a short-term high-sodium diet has no effect on blood pressure in dogs and cats with normal renal function provided free access to water is provided.
After treating 34 cats with gingivo-stomatitis through extraction of all of the premolar and molar teeth, the effects of the treatments were monitored in long-term follow-up observations. Over the period, a recovery was observed in 17 of 34 cats, which improved quickly or gradually after treatment. No improvement by the final evaluation was seen in 12 out of 34 cats, which included cases where the condition deteriorated. In addition,five cats showing no long-term improvement underwent total tooth extraction, which produced a complete cure in four cats and an improvement in one cat. By evaluating the effect diachronically, it may be possible to reconsider whether to continue to treat the cats internally or perform total tooth extraction.
A 7-year-old, 34 kg, castrated male Golden retriever was presented with a month history of lameness in the hind limbs, especially the left hind limb. The dog was referred to our hospital. Computed Tomography (CT) findings showed bone absorption in over 50% of the pubis and part of the ischial bone, in the left hip joint region. A CT-guided biopsy was performed. A histopathologic diagnosis of osteosarcoma was made. Treatment with the bisphosphonate drug pamidronate was performed every month. At one or two weeks after the first dose of pamidronate, the lameness disappeared. CT showed high bone remodeling of the affected region on the 146th day. Over the course of 11 administrations of pamidronate, serve side effects were not observed until the dog died on the 469th day. Therefore, pamidronate lead to an improvement in the quality of life.
A seventeen-year-old castrated male mixed breed cat had a four-year history of a palpable mass in the right cervical area and was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. At surgery, another mass was also located in the left cervical area and removed with the right one. Macroscopically, the left mass was solid and white in appearance. The right mass formed a cystic lesion that accumulated transparent, colorless, and serous fluid. A solid,white mass was seen in the center of the cyst. Microscopically, the left mass mainly consisted of a solid proliferation of neoplastic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. It was diagnosed as parathyroid carcinoma because of the infiltration into surrounding thyroid tissue and capsule. The right cystic mass was diagnosed as parathyroid adenoma due to non aggressive infiltration.
Half of the growing-fattening pigs on a pig farm in Saitama Prefecture, Japan had exhibited diarrhea and growth retardation since September 2006. In January 2007, four 60-day-old, underdeveloped pigs from the farm were examined. Similar pathological findings were obtained among these pigs. In the lymph nodes, lympho cyte depletion was observed together with infiltration of macrophages, some of which contained cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antigen was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the lymph nodes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was isolated from the lungs of the four pigs. In two of the four pigs, numerous round-to-ovoid organisms were found on the epithelium from the ileum to the colon, histologically. Immunohistochemically, Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst antigen corresponded to the organisms in the intestines. In 30 of 40 (75%) fecal samples of penmates, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by immunofluorescent microscopy. Using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique at the 18S small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene, they were identified as C. parvum pig genotype Ⅱ or C. suis. These findings indicated that Cryptosporidium would be associated with diarrhea in the immunocompromised pigs with PCV2 infection and PRRS.