A synthetic pyrethroid, cyfluthrin, was evaluated for its insecticidal effect on adult house flies, Muscadomestica. The house flies used were of the susceptible Takatsuki strain, pyrethroid and organophosphateresistant Kyushu and Komagane strains, and organophosphate-resistant Yumenoshima-87 strain. Thrity female flies, 3-5 days old, of each strain were respectively put in 10 trapezoid-hexahedral cages, made of cardboard, measuring 30cm × 30cm in the upper open area covered with stainless mesh, 19cm × 19cm in the bottom area, and 8cm in depth. One cage was assigned as a non-treated control, and another was sprayed with tap water in a volume of 50ml/m2. Four cages were sprayed with 125-, 250-, 500-, and 1000-fold dilutions of cyfluthrin 5%(W/W) emulsion at a rate of 50ml/m2. To the other 4 cages, 100-, 200-, 400-, and 800-fold dilutions of a mixture (at a ratio of 1: 5 calculated as active ingredients) of cyfluthrin 5% emulsion and piperonyl butoxide as a synergist were sprayed at a rate of 50ml/m2. These 4 dilutions were equivalent to those of the 125-, 250-, 500-, and 1000-fold dilutions of the 5% emulsion. As a result, cyfluthrin had a nearly 100% efficacy against Takatsuki and Yumenoshima-87 strains of house flies, when used both singly or mixed with piperonyl butoxide. On the other hand, for pyrethroid-resistant Kyushu and Komagane strains, cyfluthrin was less effective when applied singly, but it showed a high knock down and low revival rates on flies when mixed with piperonyl butoxide.
Clinicopathological responses of calves to experimental infection with a field isolate of Theileriasergenti were studied in two splenectomised and one non-splenectomised calves. In the two splenectomised calves, the maximum parasitemia level reached 26.3% and 31.3%. Severe anaemia, and hepatic and renal dysfunction were caused by parasite multiplication in the blood. One of them died at the acute anaemic phase. In the dead calf, a decrease in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and a marked increase in leucocyte count were observed. Moreover, a large increase in GOT, GPT and LDH levels and a large decrease in blood glucose level were observed. In the non-splenectomised calf, the maximum parasitemia level reached 12.6%, and anaemia appeared, just as in the splenectomised calves. No blood chemical changes were observed at the anaemic phase, but the GOT and LDH levels increased at the schizogonic phase. These results indicated that this field isolate of T. sergenti was proliferated in not only splenectomised calf but also non-splenectomised calf and caused severe anaemia and hepatic and renal dysfunction by multiplication. It was confirmed that the dead calf developed severe hepatic dysfunction, leucocytosis and macrocytic, hypochromic anaemia. In addition, hepatic dysfunction was present at not only the acute anaemic phase but also the schizogonic phase.
One-hundred and four, and 276 strains of Actinobacillus(Haemophilus)pleuropneumoniae were isolated from 25 slaughtered pigs and 97 pigs affected with pleuropneumonia respectively, and were examined for the serotyping and drug susceptibility. On the examining the 25 slaughtered pigs, the most frequently identified serotype was serotype 2 in 21 pigs(84%). It was followed by serotypes 1 and 8 in 2 pigs(8%)respectively, and then serotype 9 in 1 pig (4%). Two different serotypes were found in 1 pig simultaneously. After examining 97 pigs with pleuropeumonia, serotype 2 was most frequently isolated(64 pigs, 66.0%). It was followed by serotype 1 (12 pigs, 12.4%), serotype 5(10 pigs, 10.3%), serotype 7 (7 pigs, 7.2%), serotype 3 (3 pigs, 3.1%)and serotype 12 (1 pig, 1.0%). All the 104 strains from the slaughtered pigs were susceptible to the 19 drugs which formed a single peak distribution of MIC. However, of the 276 strains isolated from the pigs affected with pleuropneumonia, 169 strains (61.2%)were resistant to some of the 19 drugs. By serotypes, the resistant strains were 72.7%(40/55 isolates) of the serotype 1 strains, 65.8%(121/184 isolates)of the serotype 2 strains, and all strains of serotypes 7 and 12 (7 and 1 isolate). All the serotypes 3 and 5 strains(3 and 26 isolates)showed a single peak distribution of MIC to all the drugs. On examining the resistance by Serotypes, a relatively large number of serotype 1 strains were resistant to SAs·SM (40.0%)and then to SAs·SM·TP·CP (22.5%). The serotypes 2, 7 and 12 strains were most frequently resistant to SAs·SM(83.5%), SAs·SM·PCG·ABPC(85.7%)and SAs·SM·TP·CP resistance (100%), respectively.
On March 29, 1989, an abnormal calf birth occurred in Okayama Prefecture. The abnormal calf displayed the inability to stand and extended any of its four limbs. From histopathogical findings and results of the neutralization test against Ainovirus, it was suggested that the abnormal birth may have been associated with an infection of Ainovirus. Findings obtained by examinations of sentinel calves suggested that an epizootic of Ainovirus infection took place from September to October, 1988. The antibodies to Ainovirus in the southern area of Okayama Prefecture were examined in serum samples collected from sentinel calves in 1985, 1988 and 1989. These results made it clear that the epizootic of Ainovirus infection occurred in 1985 and 1988. Serum samples were collected from 380 cows on 83 farms during December, 1985 to December, 1989. The neutralizing antibody to Ainovirus were detected in 27.4% of 380 cows. These results in indicated that Ainovirus was widely distributed in the southern area of Okayama Prefecture.
A database system for animal drug information was developed to promote adequate uses in farm animals. Using dBASE III and MS-DOS BASIC as the application softwares the system was made to allow an efficient search of information from the Animal Drug Files (ADF). ADF consist of 8 files on name search, generic name, trade name, physicochemical, pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, drug formulation and chemical structure. These files allow to obtaining of drug information of textbook field handbook-monographlevel and regulation status of the drugs. The chemical structure is displayed on the screen. Technical term and code files and reference files are also available.
To extirpate a tumor, hepatolobectomy was conducted on a 12-year-old female mongrel having a massive hepato-hemangiosarcoma. Longterm observation was made on the postoperative clinical course. Preoperative X-ray examination, ultrasonography and aspiration biopsy gave indication of a liver malignant tumor, and surgery was thus considered appropriate. The postoperative course was favorable, but on day 220, laboratory findings indicated possible splenic metastasis. This was actually the case and caused the death of the animal on day 250.
This study dealt with an examination of 140 isolates of Yersinia species from slaughtered swine. The isolates were identified as 131 strains of Y. enterocolitica serotype 03, four strains of Y. enterocolitica other than serotype 03 and five strains of the other Yersinia sp. based on the presence ofvirulence associated properties, such as 44 Md plasmid, calcium dependency, auto-agglutination and pyrazinamidase activity. Up to 111 strains (84.7%) of the 131 isolates of Y. enterocolitica serotype 03, harbored the virulent plasmid and were positive for calcium dependency and auto-agglutination. As for the pyrazinamidase test, 128 strains (97.7%) were negative irrespective of the presence of the virulence plasmid. The pyrazinamidase activity seems not to be associated with the virulent plasmid. Previously, the authors reported that Y. enterocotitica serotype 03, was trequentiy recoverea from slaughtered swine. As a consequence of the tests on the virulence associated properties more than 80% of the isolates obsorved were pathogenic. Hence, the contamination of carcasses with the organisms at abattoir should be thoroughly prevented.