Piromidic acid (PA; 8-ethyl-5, 8-dihydro-5-oxo-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) pyrido [2, 3-d] pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid) was applied to the treatment of colibacillosis (white scours) in piglets. Susceptibility of 29 clinically-isolated strains of Escherichia coli to PA was tested by the agar-dilution method and compared with that to several antibacterial agents. The MIC values of PA and its metabolite (3-hydroxy PA) were 6.25-25μg/ml and 3.13-12.5μg/ml, respectively. The cross-resistance was not observed between PA and any antibiotic or sulfa drug. When administered orally with 25-50mg/kg/day of PA for 3-7 days, piglets recovered from colibacillosis. They showed average body weight gains higher than those of control piglets. The number of colibacilli was reduced by PA administration, but that of total anaerobes or Lactobacillus organisms was not.
Since March, 1981, a chronic respiratory disease occurred in caged canaries on a farm keeping about 600 birds in Iwate Prefecture. Although no birds died, approximately one-third of 400 birds in breeding flocks showed a disturbance of chirping, moist rale and gasping. Histologic examination were performed on 9 birds, including 7 affected ones. Mites were found in the trachea and the bronchi of the lungs from 7 birds. There were hypersecretion, hyperplasia and desquamation of the epithelial cells. Hyperemia and round cell infiltration were also seen in the respiratory tract and air sacs. No antibody was detected against Mycoplasma gallisepticum, M. synoviae or Newcastle disease virus. Extensive cultural examinations gave no significant isolates. Many mites, which were dark-brown and 0.6mm in length, were collected from the trachea of 3 birds in the flocks. They were identified as Sternostoma tracheacolum Lawrence 1948, Mesotiguata, Phnongssidae, and named “kotori-hanadani” in Japanese by Kitaoka. The affected birds were given freeaccess to water containing about 0.1mg/ml trichlorophon for 4 hours. After that the signs disappeared.
Five young boars manifested pyrexia and oscheal enlargement when they, showed an increase in titer of HI antibody against Japanese encephalitis. As a result, dysspermia or aspermia, a decrease in count of viable sperms, and an increase in number of abnormal sperms were noticed. The testis was atrophic and had spoke-like foci on its cut surface. Spermatogenesis was not observed in these foci, but was in the normal part of the testis.
In September, 1981, Salmonella typhimurium infection broke out in a human infant 10 months of age on a farm located in Tochigi Prefecture. S. typhimurium strains isolated from the infant and rearing calves on the farm belonged to the same biological type 1 of Duguid and showed multiple resistance to tetracycline (Tc), chloramphenicol (Cm), streptomycin (Sm) and sulfonamide (Su). Rapid identification of plasmid DNA revealed that the S. typhimurium strains isolated harbored two kinds of plasmid DNAs in the same cell. Large plasmid DNA 98 megadaltons in molecular weight was found to be a conjugative R plasmid with resistance to 4 drugs (Tc. Cm. Sm. Su). Restriction enzyme cleavage analysis showed that R plasmids of S. typhimurium isolated from the infant and calves were indistinguishable in their cleavage patterns. This result indicates common ancestry for these R plasmids. These findings suggest that the S. typhimurium strains may have been transmitted from the diarrheal calves to the infant on the farm. The rapid identification of plasmid DNA seemed to be a useful method for obtaining a subsidiary epizootiologic marker in Salmonella infections
A 7-year-old Holstein cow, which had previously given birth to 3 normal calves, delivered a fullterm fetal monster (25kg). The monster showed the absence of the vertebral column caudal to the third thoracic vertebra and the spinal cord terminated in the vertebral arch of the first thoracic vertebra. The muscles supplied by nerve fibers from the spinal cord caudal to the thoracic segment suffered from atrophy. The head, neck and front limbs were externally normal. Atresia ani, malformations in the urogenital organs, and abnormality of the shape and ossification in the sternum were also seen. This case was regarded as Perosomus elumbis.