The composition of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the rumen were compared between six apparently normal dairy cows (Group I) and the other six with moderate to severe ketonuria after parturition (Group II). In Group I, the total VFA level was decreased at day 5 post partum (PP) and recovered at day 14 PP, while the level remained always lower in Group II. In Group I, rumen acetic acid level was slightly reduced and propionic acid level was slightly increased at day 14 PP. In Group II, acetic acid level was gradually increased at day 5 to 14 PP and propionic acid level was gradually reduced at day 14 PP. Butyric acid level was lower in Group II at day 5 PP. The blood glucose level decreased at day 5 PP and recovered at day 14 PP in Group I and was still reduced at day 14 PP in Group II. The blood total ketone and β-hydroxybutyric acid level were increased at day 5 PP showing recovery at day 14 PP in Group I and were markedly increased at day 5 and 14 PP in Group II. In Group II, asparatic aminotransferase activity was markedly increased at day 5 and 14 PP.
Staphylococci and streptococci from bovine mastitis cases were identified by latex agglutination test (LA) using commercial kits. Of a total of 140 milk samples, 162 isolates were obtained from 116 samples. Of those strains; 40 (24.7%) strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 39 (24.1%) strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci, 19 (11.7%) strains of viridans streptococci and 18 (11.1%) strains of group B streptococci. By LA using colonies grown on the agar plate, all the S. aureus isolates were positive for Staphaurex, and 30 (75.0%) for PS latex. All the group B streptococci strains and 5 of 7 Enterococcus faecalis strains were positive for all the kits used. In the direct LA using milk containing more than 104 CFU/ml of group B streptococci, all the samples were positive.
Fifteen fattening (110-115 day-old) pigs presented with exophthalmos, articular swelling, and lameness and 6 of them died. At necropsy, hemorrhage with hypocoagulable clots was seen at the orbital, cervical, brachial and inner thigh regions and extremities. Histopathologically, remarkable subfascial and intermuscular hemorrhage was observed. By high performance liquid chromatography, 0.7 to 0.8ppm and 0.1ppm of coumatetralyl were detected from the liver and kidneys of dead cases, respectively. From these results, the coumarin poisoning was con firmed.
In 4 of 17 high yielding dairy cows, acute hoof lameness occurred immediately after changing formula feed, showing edema, fibrin thrombosis, perivascular lymphocyte infiltration and hypertrophied tunica muscularis media of the artery in the corium. The crude fat content of the formula feed was 7.8%(DMbasis) and mostly of the plant origin (soybean and cotton seed) containing a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. In the neighboring farms the milk protein level markedly decreased after giving the same diet. These observations suggested that the higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids might induce the disorder of microbial fermentation in the rumen, producing the same factors causing acute laminitis.
A 60-day-old calf died showing watery diarrhea and excreting 73 trichurid eggs/g-feces. A large number of trichurid worms were revealed in the congested cecum and colon. The mesenteric lymph nodes were swollen. By microscopy catarrhal and necrotizing lesions were observed in the cecum and colon infiltrated with eosinophils and neutrophils in the presence of Trichuris worms and eggs. The worms resembled Trichuris discolor.
Babesia canis is divided into three subspecies (B. canis rossi, B. canis canis and B. canis vogeli) based on differences in clinical symptoms induced, species of transmitting ticks, geographical distribution and/or serological characteristics. To determine the subspecies of B. canis living in Okinawa Island, the severity of clinical symptoms in both splenectomized and intact dogs, species of transmitting ticks and the serological characteristics were examined. The clinical symptoms were mild in both splenectomized and intact dogs. The parasite was transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. When the serum from the inoculated dog was subjected reaction to the subspecies of B. canis by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, the serum was found positive only to B. canis vogeli. From these findings, subspecies of B. canis distributed in Okinawa belongs to the subspecies B. canis vogeli.
A 6-month-old male maltese dog showing posterior weakness, cervical pain, lethargy, was diagnosed by radiographic and neurologic examinations as multiple cartilaginous exostoses (MCE) with spinal cord compression, that was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology.
Black-colored livers in four slaughtere horses were histopathologically revealed to have yellowish-brown granules in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. Histochemically they were suggested to be of ceroid and lipofuscin pigment probably due to vitamin E deficiency.