Between September 2008 and May 2009, an outbreak of Akabane disease occurred in 20 calves in 7 cities and 3 towns in middle Hyogo Prefecture. The first case was a 2-month-old calf showing difficulty in standing. Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in 8 calves born between September and November 2008 that showed neurological symptoms, such as ataxia and paralysis. Loss of spinal ventral horn neurons and muscular atrophy were observed in 3 calves born in December that were arthrogryposis. No pathological change was observed in a calf born in January 2009 that was experiencing weakness. Hydranencephaly was observed in 8 calves born between March and April 2009 that showed neurological symptoms, such as blindness. Immunohistochemically, Akabane viral antigens were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) in the cases of encephalomyelitis period. By RT-PCR, Simbu serogroup S gene was detected in the CNS of the calves born up to December 2008. The nucleotide sequences of PCR products of Akabane viral S gene were closely related to Okayama 2004 and classified into genogroup Ⅱ . These findings suggest that the Akabane virus belonging to genogroup Ⅱcaused not only congenital abnormalities but also encephalitis in the calves.
To evaluate the effect of Mannheimia haemolytica (Mh) inactivation vaccine on Japanese Black cattle the cattle were divided into a vaccination group (n＝12) and a control group (n＝12). Leukotoxin neutralizing antibody titers at two weeks after vaccine injection showed a significant increase compared with the day of injection (P ＜0.05). Leukotoxin neutralizing antibody titers in the vaccination group showed a significant increase compared to the control group (P ＜0.05). The incidence and frequency of treatment for respiratory disease were lower in the vaccination group. The results suggested that Mh inactivation vaccine may permit fast and steady antibody production, making it effective for preventing respiratory disease.
In September 2009, two of four Holstein heifers in a farm in Saitama Prefecture showed astasia and convulsions, and one died. Two days earlier, the owner of the farm had provided new bedding for the heifers by cutting branches from trees near the paddock. Partially digested leaves were found in the rumen of the dead heifer, and were identified as Japanese star anise (Illicium anisatum L.) by morphological observation, the PCR-RFLP method, and phylogenetic analysis. Anisatin, the toxic compound naturally occurring in Japanese star anise, was also detected in the ruminal content and serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). On the basis of these findings, the death of the heifer was determined to be a result of Japanese star anise poisoning. A combination of morphological, genetic, and chemical methods is available for diagnosis of plant poisoning.
Variations of the hepatic duct terminal were examined using CT imaging by drip infusion cholangiography（DIC-CT) in 41 healthy beagles. The order of termination of hepatic ducts proximal to the gallbladder was also classified into two. In most of the dogs (36/41:88%), the hepatic duct from the right medial lobe was terminated in the common bile duct (CBD). In 12% of the dogs (5/41), the end of the duct from the quadrate lobe terminated in the CBD in a more proximal position than the end of the duct from the right medial lobe. The length of the CBD was 54.25 ± 6.59 mm (mean ± SD). This study showed anatomical variations of the canine extrahepatic ducts. These results suggest that DIC-CT imaging, especially laparoscopic cholecystectomy, may be useful for preoperative screening.
Causative bacteria and antimicrobial drug susceptibility in various infectious diseases in dogs and cats presenting at one hospital were examined over the past 5 years and an antibiogram was made. The common causative bacteria were the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) in dogs and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in cats. Many methicillin-resistant (MR) SIG and MRCoNS were isolated in both the dogs and cats. The most common causative bacteria in the cystitis of dogs and the genital infections of dogs and cats were Escherichia coli. The most common causative bacteria in the cystitis of cats were Enterococcus spp. In the antibiogram of dogs, Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and Gram-negative rods (GNR) were highly sensitive to doxycycline (DOXY), chloramphenicol (CP), and gentamicin(GM), ofloxacin (OFLX), respectively. In cats,GPC and GNR were highly sensitive to DOXY, CP, OFLX, and GM, OFLX, respectively.