The clinical effect of alginate gel containing platelet rich plasma (PRP) on dairy cows with sole ulcers was examined. Whole blood was collected from the patients and PRP was prepared so that there were five times more platelets than whole blood. Among 11 hooves of 7 dairy cows with sole ulcers, 6 were treated with alginate gel containing PRP (PRP group) and the remaining 5 were treated with alginate gel alone (control group). The percentage reduction in the size of the hoof defect and changes in lesion score and pain score by pressure were recorded at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after treatment. The percentage reduction in size of the defect, lesion score,and pain score were significantly lower at each assessment point in the treated group than those of the control group. From these results, alginate gel containing PRP could be an effective treatment method for sole ulcers in dairy cows.
Bovine torovirus (BToV) is a causal factor for diarrhea in calves, but its symptoms in adult cattle remain unclear. The involvement of BToV was investigated in the 2010 occurrence of diarrhea in cattle at two dairy farms in Ishikawa Prefecture. At Farm A, half of the adult cattle had diarrhea, and about half of the investigated cattle showed the presence of BToV, as evidenced by seroconversion against BToV or fecal sample detection of a BToV gene. A BToV strain was isolated from the fecal sample of one bovine from Farm A. Because other pathogens were not detected, we concluded that the cause of the enteric disease was BToV. At Farm B,a BToV strain was detected from a fecal sample of a calf with hemorrhagic diarrhea. The S gene sequence of the BToV strain detected from the Farm B fecal sample was the same as that isolated from the Farm A bovine. Because seroconversion was also detected, the causative agent of diarrhea was diagnosed as BToV. A seroepidemiological analysis of 12 farms in the prefecture using an isolated virus demonstrated that the BToV antibody was widespread among dairy and beef cattle. These results suggest that BToV is present throughout Ishikawa Prefecture and causes diarrhea not only in calves but also in adult cattle.
A herd of 200 Japanese black breeding cows were fed moldy sweet potatoes. Among the herd, 30 of 45 pregnant cows showed respiratory syndrome and diarrhea, and 2 of them died. Necropsy of the dead cow revealed the presence of pulmonary grossly lesions, congestive edema, and the presence of liver ecchymosis. Microscopic observation showed pulmonary perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes. Blood biochemical data showed signs of liver dysfunction. No significant bacterium or virus was detected in the principal organs. Fusarium spp. -like hyphae and spores were observed in the culture media of the sweet potato sample. Ipomeamarone was detected in an extract of the sweet potato by thin layer chromatography (TLC). These observations strongly suggested that this case was caused by moldy sweet potato. TLC method is useful for quick diagnosis of moldy sweet potato poisoning without any special measuring instruments.
This study aimed to evaluate the protocol for contrast-enhanced CT of the canine kidney. Healthy beagle dogs underwent multiphase enhanced CT scans of the kidney using the bolus-tracking method. The contrast agent (iohexol, 750 mgI/kg) was injected for 15 seconds. The first scan using the bolus-tracking method was performed immediately after contrast agent administration. The scans were then carried out 40, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 300 seconds after administration. We measured the CT numbers in the renal artery, vein, cortex, and medulla, along with those of the pelvis and ureter at each time interval. The renal vascular phase, cortical nephrographic phase, parenchymal nephrographic phase, and excretory phase were reached, approximately, 17 and 19, 40 and 60, 90 and 120, and 180 and 300 seconds after intravenous contrast agent administration,respectively. There is good correlation between heart rate and the duration of achieving the 150-HU value of ROI after intravenous contrast agent administration. In conclusion, we suggest that a clear image of the kidney can be obtained by multiphase contrast-enhanced CT using the bolus-tracking method.
Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Acinetobacter lwoffii was isolated from two dogs with pyoderma, a dog with subcutaneous abscess, and a cat with cystitis admitted to an animal hospital between May and August, 2011. All MBL-producing A. lwoffii isolates were resistant to ampicillin, piperacillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefazolin, cefotiam, and imipenem; and were susceptible to minocycline and amikacin. Because MBL-producing bacteria has been recognized as a public health problem, veterinary staff at animal hospitals should be concerned about possible infections of dogs and cats with MBL-producing bacteria, including Acinetobacter.
A 9-year-old female Miniature Dachshund was presented for anorexia and depression. The dog had not previously undergone any operation. Hematological examination showed neutrophilia and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. Abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography showed masses in the greater curvature of the stomach and ileocecum. These masses were surgically resected.Histopathological examination of the resected masses resulted in a diagnosis of pyogranuloma without foreign body or bacterial involvement. The dog recovered well after surgery, although it did experience fever and vomiting, and its blood examination showed a temporary increase in CRP concentration. However, administration of prednisolone was initiated, resulting in the disappearance of clinical signs and a decrease in CRP concentration, and the dog was doing well with cyclosporine administration at 600 days after surgery. It is necessary to consider the development of abdominal pyogenic granuloma in miniature dachshunds without a history of surgical operation.
A 15-month-old, castrated male domestic short-hair cat presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. An upper urinary tract obstruction was suspected. An exploratory laparotomy revealed bilateral compression of the ureters by the deferent ducts near the lateral vesical folds, where each of the deferent ducts crosses the respective ureter. Strong tension was palpated on both deferent ducts and seemed to be the cause of the ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Both deferent ducts were resected, and nephrectomy was performed for the right kidney, which was severely hydronephrotic. At the 3-month postsurgical follow-up, the hydronephrosis in the left kidney had resolved, and the cat was generally in good condition.
To clarify the hygienic status in processing facilities for captive wild boars (Sus scrofa), we surveyed the methods of handling carcasses, as well as bacterial contamination on the surface of tools used for the handling and on processed meat at two facilities in Tottori Prefecture. Furthermore, a questionnaire on personal hygiene was sent to 129 hunters. The results revealed that the methods were similar to those typically used in slaughterhouses. The standard plate and coliform group counts from the tools were less than 102 CFU/cm2 in a facility performing disinfection at a high frequency. The numbers of bacteria from the meat samples were more than 105 CFU/g in another facility performing disinfection at a low frequency. Although only sixteen (12%) of 129 hunters surveyed were users of the facilities, 113 (88%) handled the carcasses at home regardless the evisceration of the animals. Of these, 9 (8%) had experience eating raw organs. Thus, it is necessary to provide them with zoonotic knowledge and to improve slaughterhouse facilities.