Fecal samples were taken from newborn dairy calves to clarify the pathophysiology of diarrhea. Fecal p H, ammonia, urea, lactic acid, and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were measured in 101 samples taken from 38 dairy calves during a period lasting from the day of birth to the age of 9 weeks. Among these samples, 60, including 5 instances of meconinm (within 24 hours postnatal), were normal. Eighteen were from soft to runny, and 23 were watery. Urea levels were remarkably high; ammonia and FVA (acetic acid only) levels were lowest in meconium. Within a few days after birth, a transient decrease in fecal p H was accompanied by an increase in lactic acid. Fecal VFAs, including propionic and butyric acid, and ammonia levels increased after birth. Although, in most instances of diarrheic feces, lower p H and higher VFA levels were observed, fecal lactic-acid levels were not necessarily higher. A positive relation was observed between fecal ammonia and VFA levels.
We investigated the development of lung lesions in primary specific pathogen-free pigs inoculated with either Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae or Pasteurella multocida or with both. Then we evaluated M. hyopneumoniae vaccine in cases of dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida. In pigs inoculated with P. multocida alone, no pulmonary lesions were observed, and organisms were rapidly eliminated from the lungs. Moderate pulmonary lesions were observed in pigs inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae alone. Severe, extensive pulmonary lesions were observed in and organisms were isolated from pigs inoculated with both M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida. These results suggest that P. multocid a infection aggravates the severity of lung lesions caused in pigs by M. hyopneumoniae infection. The M. hyopneumoniae inactivated vaccine proved effective against not only M. hyopneumoniae, but also dual infection with M. hyopneumoniae and P. multocida.
Bacteriological examinations showed all of 24 samples of calf umbilical infection to be positive.Escherichi coliwas isolated from 15 cases;Proteus mirabilisfrom 10;Streptococussspp. from 7;Fusobacterium necrophorumsubsp.funduliformefrom 6;Arcanobacterium pyogenesfrom 5;Bacteroidesspp. andF. necrophrumsubsp.necrophorumfrom 3 each; andKlebsiellasp., Enterococcussp., andPeptostreptococcussp. from one each. Of 24 samples cultured, 15 contained from 2 to 5 kinds of bacteria. These results show that anaerobes too are associated with umbilical infection in calves.
Physical examination and measurement of preprandial and postprandial serum bile acid and blood ammonia concentrations led to suspicion of a conbgenital portosystemic shunt in a 4-month-old Yorkshire terrier (1.40kg) admitted for evaluation of retarded growth, ptyalism, and postprandial ataxia. An intraoperative contrast portal venogram via the mesenteric vein revealed double extrahepatic shunt vessels from the portal vein to the caudal vena cava. After complete occlusion of the cranial and caudal shunts, portal pressure increased slightly from 3mmHg to 9mmHg. Opacification of liver lobes was visible after ligation of the shunts because of dilation of the portal vein. Anesthetic and postoperative recovery was uneventful. Five months after surgery, the patient was doing will with no clinical signs and no medication requirement. This instance of congenital double extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in a dog is rare.
In July 2001 we conducted a questionnaire survey of 1, 057 veterinary technicians who had attended seminars on zoonosis. The questionnaire included questions on school attendance and the zoonosis courses. Seventyfi ve percent of the respondents had graduated from professional schools for veterinary technicians and specialists in pet grooming or animal care. Among them 83% had taken courses on zoonosis, and more than 77% acknowledged the usefulness of such education. More than 50% acquired knowledge of parasites from the course, indicating the potential substantial role of professional schools in extending knowledge on zoonosis. Veterinary associations and veterinarians should therefore promote zoonosis education for students and veterinary technicians by working with government agencies, medical associations, and profe sional schools.