Filarial larvae were collected from 110 dogs raised in Tokyo and examined morphologically by the acetone concentration method. All of them were sheathless and classified into two species on the basis of the shape, length, and width of the body. The larvae detected from 109 dogs were large in size and identifiidentified as those ofDirofilaria immitis, and those from the other dog were small in size and identified as those of Dipetalonema reconditum. This dog was a hound imported from Kentucky, U.S.A. It was for the first time in Japan that this species was found in any prefecture other than Okinawa.
Salmonella organisms were isolated from 1.9% of the chickens kept on a poultry farm and 51.9% of the feces scattered in a chicken house. Of the strains isolated on the farm, 98.3% belonged toSalmonella sofia. This type was detected also from dressing, packing, and processing plants of chicken at a high frequency, or as high as 94.7% from a certain dressing plant. From the chicken meat shops examined, S. sofiawas not isolated in 1969, but was at a rate of 15.1 and 42.3% in 1970 and 1971, respectively. The isolated.S. sofiapossessed such biochemical properties as identical with those of subgenus II of Kauffmann and a monophasic organism with an antigenic structure of 4, 12: b. Of the strains isolated, 97.9% were resistant to some drugs, mostly to streptomycin (50mcg/ml).
On four hog farms in Okayama Prefecture, a disease broke out among pigs 3 to 4 months of age during a period from November, 1970, to April, 1971. It caused pyrexia, tachypnea, anorexia, diarrhea, constipation, and cyanosis of the auricles, four extremities, and hypogastric region, and eventual death, which usually occurred after a course of 1 to 4 days. It was diagnosed as pratyphoid fever due toSalmonella choleraesuis. Autopsy revealed pulmonary edema, congestion of the pulmonary apex and lobus medius, splenomegaly and obscurity of follicles in the spleen, cloudy swelling of the liver, mild petechiae beneath the renal capsule and in the cardiac coronary region, and hyperemia and hemorrhage of principal lymph nodes. Histological examination revealed hyaline degeneration and thrombosis of small blood vessels of the lung and septal interstitial pneumonitis, activation of the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver and lymph nodes, and well-defied necrosis in pulmonary lobules and diffuse necrosis in lymph nodes. Sal. choleraesuiswas isolated purely from principal organs of dead pigs. Pigs which had withstood the infection showed an increase in agglutination titer of blood against this organism. The average morbidity and fatality were 21.3 and 34.8%, respectively, on the four hog farms.
A total of 61 strains (including 1 strain of stock culture ATCC 4617) ofBordetella bronchisepticaisolated from swine were examined for sensitivity to 52 antibacterial drugs by means of a plate dilution method. Of them, 39 strains were derived from 35 pigs presenting clinical sighs of atrophic rhinitis and 21 strains from apparently healthy pigs. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Many strains were highly sensitive to sulfa drugs, tetracyclines, colistin, polymyxin-B, and gentamicin. Most of them were relatively sensitive to fradiomycin, erthromycin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, novobiocin, and oxolinic acid. Most of the strains tested were inclined to be decreasingly sensitive to aminobenzyl penicillin, oleandomycin, thiophenicol, bacitracin, streptomycin, macarbomycin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, tylosin, and mikamycin in the order listed. On the other hand, 11.5% of the strains tested were resistant to sulfa drugs and manifbsted a cross-resistance to aminobenzyl penicillin and streptomycin.
A total of 28 strains of avian vibrio showed a high sensitivity to the antibacterial quinoxaline derivative, carbacox (CD), and the antibacterial nitrofuran derivative, panazon (PZ), at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of less than 0.78 and 3.13 mcg/ml (unit omitted hereafter), respectively. Moreover, 57.1% of them exhibited an MIC less than 0.09. Six strains ofVibrio fetus, 1 Strain of V.bubulus, and 3 strains ofV. coliwere also sensitive to the two drugs, showing almost the same MIC as the avian vibrio. Twelve strains ofV. parahaemolyticusmanifested a very low sensitivity or a resistance to both drugs. Most of them showed an MIC of 100 for CD and more than 200 for PZ. There was no difference in drugsensitivity between strains of different origin or different biochemical properties.