Reflotron is a dry chemistry blood analyzer. The authors studied its usefulness in a veterinary clinic. In this study, we evaluated the urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (GOT), and alanine aminotransferase (GPT) in canine and feline sera. In addition, these parameters, except GPT, and gamma glutamyltransferase (γ-GPT) were measured in cattle. The Rapid Blood Analyzer (RaBA-Σ, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.) was used as a wet chemistry reference system.m Most values measured with Reflotron were higher than those with the wet reference system, but there were close correlations between the two system's values in all parameters studied. The coefficient of variation was 2.78% on average, ranging from 1.1 to 7.5%. The abnormal high level sera in each parameter were diluted with normal level sera from the same kind of animal, and separately with bovine albumin solution, followed by measurement with reflotron. The data were approximately linear, showing no correlation to the medium used for dilution. We believe that Reflotron is useful for clinicopathological diagnosis in the veterinary clinic setting because the technique of measurement is simple and accurate results are obtainable within 3 minutes per each parameter. The clinician may explain to his client the pathogenesis or prognosis of vague disease doing physical examination.
Changes in level of serum and red blood cell tocopherol, and serum vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) after oral administration of vitamin AD3E premix were examined in calves and milk cattle of the Holstein Breed. In the calves to which 2, 5000, 000 IU of vitamin A were administered, serum vitamin A levels increased markedly from two to 48 hours after the administration. Serum tocopherol level was not increased by the administration of 1, 000 IU of vitamin E. However, makred increase of the tocopherol levels was observed from eight to 72 hours after the administration of 2, 000 and 2, 500 IU. In the milk cattle administered with 7, 500, 000 IU of vitamin A, serum vitamin A levels incresed markedly from two to 48 hours after the administration. Although tocopherol levels (in serum and red blood cell) did not increase after the administration of 3, 000 IU of vitamin E, marked increase of the tocopherol levels was observed from 24 to 72 hours after the administration of 6, 000 and 7, 500 IU of vitamin E. From the findings described above, the effective oral dose of vitamin E for cattle was considered to be about 25 IU/kg for calves and about 12.5 IU/kg for milk cattle.
There was an outbreak of an acute respiratory disease in cattle in Nagasaki Prefecture in March, 1987. The 45 cattle, all from different places in Nagasaki Prefecture from outsideof the prefecture, involved in the outbreak showed fever, coughing, nasal discharge, labored breathing and diarrhea five days after they were introduced and five of them died. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from six nasal swab specimens in seven ill cattle (85.7%). Mycoplasma SP. was isolated from two of seven specimens (28.6%). Two cytopathogenic virus strains were isolated in MDBK cell cultures from nasal swabs of cattle with markedleukopenia. The isolants were readily inactivated by acid and heating at 50°C for 30 minutes, but they resisted chloroform. The type of their nucleic acid was determined to be RNA. Immunoelectron microscopy using convalescent serum revealed picornavirus-like particles in cultured material. The isolants were neutralized with antiserum against the Sd-1 strain of bovine rhinovirus type 1. A significant rise in antibody titer was shown against the isolants in convalescent serum of the ill cattle, but not against bovine respiratory syncytiai virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, or bovine entero virus. A small rise in antibody titer against bovine herpesvirus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3 and bovine viral diarrhea mucosal disease virus, was shown. It is considered, however, that such a sero-conversion may be due to vaccination of combined vaccine against these viral agents. Serologic survey against the isolated virus in sera collected from 195 cattle in 1987 in Nagasaki Prefecture revealed that 73. 5% of those over one year old were antibody positive, while 29. 9% of those from four to 10 months old particulaly have a tendency to show a low positive rate.
Chondrodysplastic dwarfism with short limbs, gait abnormality and ateleiosis occurred in 21 Japanese brown calves in Kumamoto Prefecture from Sep, 1983 to Feb, 1988. The disorders were confined to the long bones of the limbs and were characterized by shortening and epiphyseal deformation caused by chondrodysplasia of the epiphyseal growth cartilage. Phenotypically, the dwarfism seen in these calves differed from all other forms reported to date. The circumstances in the occurrence and pedigree study strongly indicated the likelihood that the abnormality represents a recessive character.
Isolation of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was achieved from the nasal cavities of clinically healthy slaughtered pigs raised on nine farms located in Shizuoka Prefecture, and serotype and drug susceptibility of the isolates were examined. 1) In total, 85 strains were isolated from the nasal cavities of 196 slaughtered pigs. Antiserotype 2 antibodies were detected in 137 (70%) by the complement-fixation (CF) test. About 68% of the pigs had pleuropneumonia. 2) The organisms were isolated from the nasal cavities of 35% to 100% of pigs in varying ages on nine farms. CF antibodies againt serotype 2 could be detected in many pigs over 80 days old. 3) Ninety-three (92%) of 101 isolates belonged to serovar 2, whereas the remaining eith (8%) isolates were serovar 5. Fourteen of 21 isolates were resistant to KM, SM, SDM, TS, TIM and TP.
Two cases of pyovagina were admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital of the Osaka Prefecture University with the chief complaint of a persistent draining of pus from the vulva. One of these was a primipara Yorkshire Terrier dog which was six years old, and the other was a mongrel bitch, both of whose medical histories were unknown. Although their uteri and ovaries were normal, they had a dilation of the vagina and retention of pus in it. Various bacteria, such as Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, were detected in the pus. The etiology of the disease was not unknown in the first case where no stenosis or closure in the vagina could be found, but it had a history of labor and also abortion had been reported by another researcher in an other case. From this information, insufficient involution of the vagina after labor or abortion, may probably have been the causative factor. In our second case, the cause of vaginal dilatation and retention of pus was an inserted foreign body in the lumen of the vagina by a sexual pervert.
An arteriovenous fistula of the common carotid artery and vena cava cranialis was observed in a 23-day-old male Holstein calf. This case had a large pulsating aneurysm synchronized with pulse of the heart. The aneurysm (7.3 × 5.5× 4.8cm), having various sized foldings onits inner surface, was situated at the point of anastomosis. The aneurysmal wall was so thin that thecontained blood was visible. Both ventricles were markedly dilated. As minor changes in the heart, there were patencies of foramen ovale (4mm in diameter) and dcutus arteriosus (2mm in diameter).
The liver and cecum from fighting chickens with histomoniasis were observed by electron micro-scopy. Protozoa of Histomonas meleagridis were seen in a large number in the liverand cecum. In the liver, only protozoa in the vegetative stage were observed in the cytoplasm ofthe hepatocytes. In the cecum, invasive and vegetative stages of protozoa were observed. The protozoa of invasive stages were seen intercellularly.