Forty seven Holstein-Friesian cows were referred to the Azabu University Veterinary Hospital as serious cases with the displaced abomasum. The cows were given a laparotomy and right omentopexy after the correction of the electrolyte imbalance by fluid transfusion. Of the 40 cows without torsion, 29 recovered after surgery and 11 died or were slaughtered because of poor prognosis. The changes in clinical courses, laboratory findings and pathological findings of necropsied cases were compared between the cases with good and poor prognosis. Results obtained were as follows: On the admission day, the clinical signs in the cows of poor prognosis were more serious than those of good prognosis. The cows of poor prognosis showed lower values of serum albumin, A/G, and potassium and higher values of blood urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, and inorganic phosphorus than those of good prognosis. The day after surgery, the cows of poor prognosis showed lower values of the blood lymphocyte count, serum albumin, A/G, and total cholesterol and higher values of the neutrophil count, blood urea nitrogen, and ALP than those of good prognosis. The pathological findings included, peritonitis, omasitis, pleuropneumonia and fatty liver. These results indicated that sev eral laboratory findings on the admission day and the day after surgery can serve as an indicator of prognosis.
Transrectal ultrasonography (USG) of the genital organs and determination of the progesterone (P) concentration in skim milk using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ETA) kit were carried out in 10 Holstein cows during the period from parturition to conception; with 4 normal cows, 3 cases of endometritis, one case of uterine prolapse, one case of premature birth accompanied with the retained placenta, and one case of abortion followed by follicular cyst. Assuming that normal cyclical ovarian activity resumes within 40 days after calving, the postpartum P changes were classified into 3 types: type I, in which normal cyclical changes have started within 40 days; type II, showing a delayed start of cyclical activity; and type III, characterized by continuance of lower P levels without cyclical activity. Three of the 4 normal cows were classified into type II, and the other into type III. The three cases of endometritis were classified one each into types I, II and III. The 3 others belonged to type II. Postpartum changes of the uterine horns were investigated by means of USG in the transverse section, and were represented with a regression curve in each case. It was clarified by the establishment of pregnancy that the bottom of the descending curve was approximately equal in size to the completely involuted uterine horn.
An outbreak of avian colibacillosis was diagnosed on a broiler farm in Lusaka, Zambia. There were 12 open flat pens on the farm, and chicks in house No.6, which had more than four thousands birds, showed respiratory signs, general weakness and diarrhea from 33 days of age, and 565 chicks died by 50 days of age. Severe airsacculitis, pericarditis and perihepatitis were odserved. Escherichia coli was isolated from the affected chicks. Serologically, the chicks were negative for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae. Etiological survey revealed that 4, 446 chicks were introduced into the pen, even though the capacity was 3, 500 birds. Therefore, density of the pen reached 18.3 birds/m2. In conclusion, the present outbreak seemed to be caused by overcrowding of birds. Key Words: avian colibacillosis, overcrowding, Zambia.
An 8-day-old calf died showing weakness, poor spirits, difficult suckling and nervous symptoms. Enterobacter cloacae (Ec) was isolated from the cerebrum in pure culture. Pathological examinations revealed purulent meningoencephalomyelitis with thrombosis in the brain. The Ec antigen was detected in the lesions by immunoperoxidase method, indirect immunofluorescent technique and electron microscopy. From the results, this case was diagnosed as pulurent meningoencephlomyelitis caused by Ec. It was considered that the inadequate intake of colostrum provoked the disease.
Electroencephalographic (EEG) examinations were performed on seven dogs infected with the canine distemper virus. A comparison was made between the EEGs of the dogs, which showed various clinical features. In the four dogs with epileptiform seizures, the EEGs were characterized by a 2 to 3 Hz pattern upon which spike discharges and a spike-and-slow-wave complex were superimposed. In the other three dogs, the EEGs showed high voltage fast activity and spike discharges. The EEG recorded over a period of time showed low voltages in the later stage of encephalitis. The spike discharge, high voltage fast activity, and low voltage EEG were characteristic in each stage of encephalitis.
The ability of platelets to aggregate in response to various stimuli was evaluated in 3 Dirofilaria immitisinfected dogs as well as 4 healthy dogs. Platelets from the normal dogs aggregated irreversibly at a concentration of 20μM of adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and reversibly with the monophasic pattern at 2.5μM of ADP. The aggregation of platelets was also observed at 3 different concentrations of collagen (2.5, 5 and 10μ/ml). Platelets from the infected dogs aggregated biphasically and irreversibly at 2.5μM of ADP, at which concentration of ADP only a reversible aggregation of platelets was induced from the normal dogs. The maximum aggregation rate and percent aggregation by 3 min of platelets from the infected dogs were remarkably higher than those from the normal dogs. The elevated platelet aggregation rate at 2.5μM ADP in 2 infected dogs decreased to the level of that in the normal dogs after the administration of acetylsalicylic acid at 0.5mg/kg body weight once a day for 5 to 8 weeks.
The efficacy of continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) as hemocatharsis and its influences on the hemodynamics were examined in dogs with experimentally induced acute renal failure. The mongrel dogs with acute renal failure induced by the ligation of the renal arteries, renal veins and ureters for 24 hr were adopted in this study. The concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine gradually increased in the five non-treated dogs. The concentrations in the five dogs treated with CAVH for 24 hr did not show a continuous increase. The hemodynamic changes were negligible in the dogs during CAVH. These results suggested that the CAVH is applicable as a technique for hemocatharsis in canine acute renal failure.
Two cats with chronic renal failure involving renal anemia were successfully treated with human erythropoietin (r-EPO). Intravenous (I.V.) administration of r-EPO at a dose of 100 IU/kg twice a week markedly increased the PCV, RBC, and Hb values. Furthermore, the comparatively favorable hematological condition was maintained for the following 25-85 weeks by continuation of the I.V. administration of r-EPO at a dose of 50-100 IU/kg once a week or every other week. The cats showed alleviation in clinical symptoms as well as an improved appetite, gaining of weight, and a glossier coat, as the anemia improved. No adverse effects were observed due to the long-term, I.V. administration of r-EPO.
Bacteria were isolated from pyoderma in 62 dogs, and the isolates were subjected to identification. As a result, Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 20 cases (32%), S. intermedius in 19 cases (31%), S. hominis in 5 cases (8%), S. epidermidis in 5 cases (8%), S. hyicus in 3 cases (4.8%), S. simulans and S. saprophyticus in one case each (1.6%). These cases were classified by the degree of pyodermal infiltration. Eleven cases belonged to superficial pyoderma, 34 cases to outer stratum pyoderma, and 17 cases belonged to deep stratumpyoderma.
Isolation of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) was attempted by testing 169 fecal samples from cattles collected in Miyazaki Prefecture from October, 1990 to June, 1991. For 338 strains which were isolated from the samples and were identified as Escherichia coli on the basis of biochemical patterns, we carried out serotypying in order to obtain diarrhea-producing Escherichia coli strains. Subsequently, 14 isolates from six cattles were found to be pathogenic, and were classified into five serogroups. Three of the five groups including five strains were considered serologically to be the VTEC group. Testing for verotoxinproducing ability for the five strains of the VTEC group indicated that only one strain (0157: H7), which was isolated from a Japanese black cattle, produced verotoxin 2 (VT2). This strain was sensitive to eight drugs except erythromycin, and possessed plasmids of 3.6 megadaltons and 2.2 megadaltons in molecular mass.