Electrophoretic Patterns of bovine serum proteins on cellulose acetate membrane (using SEPARAX) were classified into four groups consisting of 14 types in 371 cattle of 33 farms based on mobility and amount of β-and γ-globulin fraction. Typing of the electrophoretic patterns was made in groups of (1) healthy cattle, (2) cattle in highly infected areas withFasciolasp. and (3) cattle on farms Prevalent with various diseases. In the healthy cattle group, small peaks appeared in the central areas of γ-globulin fraction, many of which were classified into types A to D of group I. In the second group, most of the electrophoretic patterns belonged to types G, H and I of group II, in which peaks appered in the first half areas (anode side) of γ-globulin fraction. The cattle on N farm in this area had been treated periodically with vermifuge ofFasciolasp., showing low frequency of types G and H. In the third group, most of the patterns were types E and F of group I, showing high peaks of γ-globulin fraction, and type L of group III showing the peaks in the latter half areas of γ-globulin fraction. The cattle group having types G and H of group II showed frequently a high positive rate and high antibody titer against antigen made fromFasciolasp. in agar gel-diffusion test. A-year-long follow-up study of 19 cattle naturally infected withFasciolasp. revealed a high frequency of types G and H from November to March when there was a high positive rate and high antibody titer, suggesting Fasciolasp. infection. It was suggested that types G and H may relate to heavy infection withFasciolasp., especially the immature one. In cases showing peaks in the first half areas of γ-globulin fraction in types G and H, a single band corresponding to γ1-globulin fraction was observed in the first half areas (anode side) of γ-globulin fraction.
Two approximately one-month-old Japanese Black calves showed severe jaundice and were culled. The both animals developed jaundice and excreted white feces soon after birth. Diagnosis of choledochal atresia was established at necropsy. Histopathological examination revealed that choledochal atresia may have occurred as a consequence of extensive fibrosis caused by chronic inflammation of choledochus. Moreover, because certain evidence of Fasciola sp. infestation was found in the liver and choledochus of the affected animals, prenatal infestation of Fasciola sp. was suspected as the cause of chronic choledochitis. Histological findings of the liver similar to those of the present cases were obtained in a three-month-old Japanese Black calf which was subjected to experimental choledochal ligation for a month. To determine the incidence of the congenital bile duct atresia of calves, the calves younger than one year of age and necropsied in our Department over the past 4years were retrospectively examined. Three calves with congenital fascioliasis were found among the 28calves. One of these three animals showed obstructive jaundice. Three calves with congential jaundice were also found among the 28 calves, and two of the three calves showed obstructive jaundice. These results indicate that choledochitis caused by prenatal infestation of Fasciola sp. occasionally occurs in calves and that some of them develop choledochal atresia. Furthermore, choledochal atresia might be one of the causes of bovine congential jaundice.
A 10-month-old grazing Holtsein cow died after showing bloody diarrhea and dehydration in Niigata Prefecture. Necropsy revealed mucosal congestion with adherent mucous and blood clots, and severe serosal edema in the ileum and colon. Histologically, the ileum and colon had extensive congestion and hemorrhage in the lamina propria, and submucosal edema. Amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were located in the swollen endothelial cells of the capillary and small vessels in the lamina propria and submucosa. The inclusion bodies were also detected in endothelial cells of the blood vessels in the mesenteric lymph nodes, kidneys and spleen. The inclusion bodies showed a positive reaction against rabbit anti-bovine adenovirus serotypes 1, 3, and 7 sera by the immunoperoxidase technique. Ultrastructurally, adonovirus-like particles were demonstrated in intranuclear inclusion bodies.
The diuretic effects of acetazolamide (5.0mg/kg), furosemide (0.5mg/kg), and hydroflumethiazide (1.0mg/kg) were investigated in cows by means of a clearance method. Acetazolamide revealed temporary and slight increases in sodium clearance, potassium clearance, and urine volume. The chloride clearance was persistently decreased. Furosemide revealed significant increases in sodium clearance, potassium clearance, chloride clearance, and urine volume. However, it showed transient diuretic effects in cows. Hydroflumethiazide revealed mild effects compared with furosemide, although persistent increases in sodium clearance, potassium clearance, chloride clearance, and urine volume were observed.
A simple method for isolation of canine neutrophils by means of a coverslip was applied to fifteen clinically healthy dogs. The principle of this method is application of neutrophil adherence to a glass surface. The outline of this method consists of the following procedure: 1. Peripheral blood is dropped on a coverslip. 2. Incubation for some minutes at 37°C. 3. Coverslip is rinsed in a physiological saline solution to remove the excess blood. 4. Microscopical examination after staining. The almost pure canine neutrophils, including viable cells of 99.2±1.9% were obtained at a 20 minute incubation period. The reproducibility of the result was also satisfactory under this condition.
The efficacy of subcutaneous implantation of 20%(w/w) norethisterone (NET) in silastic silicon rubber was examined for suppressing estrus in dogs. Of a total of 11 bitches, 10 received NET ranging from 5 to 50mg/kg and one received only the rubber without NET, as a control. The suppressive effect of NET on estrus was confirmed in bitches that received NET at 10mg/kg or more, but not in bitches with a dose of 5 mg/kg. The period from implantation to recovery of estrus was dose-dependent, 11 to 19months for the dose of 10 to 15mg/kg and 27 to 29months for 25 to 30mg/kg. No estrus was observed during the observation period of 33months in bitches receiving 40 or 50mg/kg. After the recovery of estrus in 3 bitches receiving 10 or 15mg/kg, one bitch had become pregnant by spontaneous mating and was delivered of 5 normal puppies, but the other 2 bitches had become sterile.
In August 1990, vibriosis of wild ayu began occurring suddenly in the Nakagawa River, Tochigi Prefecture. It was caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup 09. A great number of ayu died, as ayu are easily infected with V. cholerae serogroup 09. The ornithin decarboxylase reaction was negative for isolates from ayu. The isolates were superier in lethality for mouse and productions of hemolysin and Vero toxin to V. cholerae non-01 isolated from water of other rivers. This ayu case did not seen to correlate to the rate of incidence of human cases caused by V. cholerae non-01.