The sudden death of cattle was observed on two farms during the early winter of 2002 at Iwate Prefecture.Thirty of 52 fattening cattle developed recumbency and severe respiratory distress without pyrexia on one farm.Twenty-one cattle died within one or two days, and nine were slaughtered. On the other farm, two of five cattleshowed similar symptoms and died within two to three hours. The outbreak terminated after a vaccinationagainst Clostridium(C. chauvoei, C. septicum, C. novyi type B). Five of the deceased animals were examinedpathologically and bacteriologically. Marked congestion with hemorrhages and edema were observed in thelungs, larynx, trachea and heart at the necropsy. Histologically, fibrinoid necrosis of arterioles was found inmany organs. C. sordellii was isolated from the ileal contents, jejunal lymph nodes, liver and kidneys in threeanimals. The pathological findings in these cases were similar to those in sudden-death syndrome believed tobe clostridial infection, except for the arteriolar changes. Clostridial organisms were considered a possiblecause of the sudden death.
We used data obtained from a mastitis survey conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheriesto analyze the management practices currently in use at 109 tie-stall dairy farms in Hokkaido and five prefecturesin mainland Japan. Bulk milk somatic cell counts were found to be significantly lower in farms thatowned milk wagons, always conduct post-dipping, frequently checked overmilking, used rubber mats and maintaineda low moisture content in cow bedding. Farms with higher bulk milk somatic cell counts had significantlylower average annual milk yields, indicating that mastitis may result in serious economic losses for farmers.It is essential to inform farmers of proper management practices for milking hygiene to reduce somaticcell counts in bulk milk.
An eight-year-old female Maltese dog were presented with an upper cervical cyst that had been present forone month. Mucous fluid like saliva was aspirated from the cyst, and a lateral radiograph revealed a calculuswithin the cyst. The cyst was therefore diagnosed as sialocele with sialolithiasis, and the cyst with a stone wasresected surgically. The calculus was milky white and measured 8×5×6mm. Its major components werecalcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. No recurrence has been observed for six months after surgery.
A comparative study was conducted to establish a diagnostic method for quickly and reliably detecting the Erysipelothrix genus during abattoir inspections. The study used three diagnostic methods: polymerase chainreaction (the PCR method), agglutination with antiserum to Erysipelothrix genus (the AG method) and routinepractice based on isolation and identification, in combination with cultivation in the enrichment broth (EB).The broth used was incubated for 20 hours under the PCR method, for 48 hours under the AG method and for20 hours (short-time method) and 48 hours (ordinary method) for routine practice. The ranking of the timetaken prior to a decision was: ordinary method>AG method>short-time method>PCR method. The examinationsfor detecting the Erysipelothrix genus in EB resulted in the following order of sensitivity: PCR method>routine practice>AG method. The steps between the minimum concentrations of bacteria for detectionwere about ten fold. The application of these methods to practical inspection of swine erysipelas in abattoirsresulted in the following order of accuracy: PCR method>ordinal method=AG method>short-timemethod, indicating that the PCR method combined with EB was a quick and reliable method for detecting Erysipelothrix genus.
A new pre-column labeled fluorescence HPLC was developed for simultaneous determination of six residualpenicillins (PCs: benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin and ampicillin) in muscle andkidney tissue in cattle and pigs. The modifications include pH and composition of the mobile phase for extendingthe retention time of ampicillin on HPLC, and the introduction of tCl8 solid-phase extraction cartridges.The recovery of ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, oxacillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and nafcillin from edible animaltissue spiked at a level of 0.05, μg/g and at 0.20, μg/g and was in the ranges (%) of 80-98, 71-75, 65-71, 63-69, 60-63 and 61-66, respectively. The detection limits for benzylpenicillin and other penicillins were 5ng/g andl0ng/g, respectively in tissues. The method is considered to have application for every meat inspection office.Key words: Ampicillin, Benzylpenicillin, Edible animal tissue, Fluorescene derivatization, HPLC.