A new flock consisting of 2, 100 layer chicks was divided at the age of one day into two groups at one day.One group was given a feed supplemented with 0.5% yeast cell wall (YCW) during the first two weeks, and alsoduring the periods of 21 to 27, 42 to 48, and 70 to 76 days of age respectively. The other group was given thesame feed, but without the YCW supplement. Both groups were then vaccinated. with an infectious bursal disease (IBD) live vaccine at 15 days of age; Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) combined (NB) live vaccine at 21 and 28 days of age; and NB oil emulsion inactivated vaccine at 61 days of age. Anti-ND antibodies were monitored by a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, and anti-IB and anti-IBD antibodieswere monitored by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Results showed that the anti-ND antibodiestiters in the YCW-supplemented group were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the non-supplementedgroup, both at 42 and 117 days of age. Moreover, anti-IBD and the anti-IB antibodies titers in theYCW-supplemented group proved to be significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the non-supplementedgroup both at 42 and 148 days of age. These results strongly suggest that the oral administration of YCW supplementsmay increase antibody production after vaccination.
Field trials were conducted on two groups of calves, numbering 134 and 168 respectively, to investigate theprophylactic efficacy of toltrazuril (triazinon derivatives) against calf coccidiosis, as well as the safety of thedrug. Results showed that the incidence of coccidiosis in the medicated group (n=67, 0.0%) was significantlylower (P<0.01) than that in the controlled group (n=67, 38.8%). The score of fecal conditions, the excretionrate of diarrheal stool, oocysts, and oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) values of the medicated group wassignificantly lower (P<0.01) than the controlled group for four weeks of treatment. In the safety tests, noadverse effects attributable to the toltrazuril treatment were observed. However, respiratory symptoms causedby a bacterial infection were observed in 19.0% of the medicated group (n=84) and 26.2% of the controlledgroup (n=84). From these results, it was concluded that a 5% Toltrazuril solution produces excellent prophylacticefficacy against calf coccidiosis, and offers a high degree of availability for clinical use.
Strangulation of the small intestine was surgically corrected in a horse suffering from colic. The discolored ileum was noticeably herniated from the left omental cavity to the right peritoneal cavity through the epiploic foramen. The bowelcontents of the distended small intestine at the right peritoneal cavity were removed, followed by reduction into the omental bursa. Following a one-meter jejunoileal resection, an end-to-side jejunocecostomy anastomosis was performed. Anesthesia time was 290 minutes, and it took approximately 120 minutes for the horseto recover after stopping anesthesia. The condition of the horse soon deteriorated, however, and it died eight hours after surgery. A post-mortem necropsy confirmed the presence of residual greater omentum through the foramen, and it is suspected that the severe intraluminal hemorrhage in the small intestine was a result of severe endotoxemia.
The objective was to examine the anti-fungal effects of a Chinese herbal combination drug. The results demonstrated that this drug was effective in controlling many fungus growths. The drug was applied to three calves with cow ringworm on alocal fattening ranch. The combined treatment of external applications of a 10% Chinese herbal infusion liquid solution over four days and internal administration of the Chinese herbal drug for one week showed remarkable results.
A 10-year-old spayed West Highland white terrier, which had previously been implanted with a pacemaker because of Sick Sinus Syndrome type III, was diagnosed ashaving a spleen tumor. Six months after the implantation and a splenectomy was performed. Consequently, the dog experienced no paroxysmal tachycardia after the pacemaker implantation, even when given perioperative anesthesia load and surgical stress.
Unilateral otitis media-interna was diagnosed in a dog (Welsh corgy, female, three-year-old) with severe atrophy of the masticatory muscles by computed tomography (CT) and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) test. Because the dog did not have a history of otitis externa, difficulty in swallowing caused by atrophy of masticatory muscles had the potential to lead to otitis media-interna. Auditory activity was estimated using BAEP test. The threshold obtained by the stimulation of the affected ear was elevated 20 dB above that of the unaffected ear The neak latencies of each wave increased by stimulation of the affected ear in comparison to those of unaffected ear. Interpeak latencies (IPLs) between wave I and V and between wave I and III decreased with affected ear stimulation, but the M-VIPL showed the same value at 90dBHL stimulation. The slopes of the intensity-latency (I-L) curve of wave V with affected ear stimulation produced a larger value than those obtained from unaffected ear stimulation. Similar BAEP findings have been reported in a human patient with a cochlear hearing loss. Although vestibular signs such as head tilt or spontaneous nystagmus were not observed, not only conductive deafness but also sensorineural deafness with impairment of cochlear function could occur in this case.
Three surveys for infection rates of Brachyspira pilosicoli (Bp) and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (Bh) in slaughtered pigs were conducted from February 2005 to March 2006 in Toyama, Japan. In the first survey, 16, 431 pigs from 37 farms were macroscopically investigated. Colitis was detected in 50 pigs (0.30%) and in eight farms (21.6%). Of the 50 pigs, Bp was isolated from one pig (2%), and Bh was isolated from 45 pigs (90%). In the second survey, 2, 810 pigs produced in the Bp-contaminated farm were examined macroscopically, and 20 pigs (0.71%) were affected with colitis. Among the pigs, Bp was isolated from two pigs (10%), and Bh wasisolated from 15 pigs (75%). In the third survey, the infection rate was investigated in 50 pigs without colitis macroscopically in the Bp-contaminated farm. Three pigs (6%) and 13 pigs (26%) were infected with Bp and Bh, respectively. These results indicate that some pigs have Bp and Bh without gross lesions or clinical signs on farms contaminated with Bp. Such asymptomatic carriers may be a major source of Bp and Bh infections. Special care is required to prevent contamination of meat with this bacterium, because Bp is a zoonotic pathogen.
Disinfection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) placed in two kinds of animal experimental rooms by pure ozonegas were examined. The disinfecting effect of ozone gas was influenced by the quantities of viral materials, but a clear disinfectant effect against two viruseswas observed over 4mg/l of ozone concentration. FMDV was completely eliminated by ozone gas but a small amount of SVDV remained after disinfection. From these results, ozone gas could be used for disinfection against FMDV. Ozone gas was considered for use for vapor disinfection instead of formalin vapor disinfection.