The concentration and composition of serum free fatty acids (FFA) were examined in normal and ketotic dairy cows during 8 weeks before and after calving. In the normal cows, FFA showed a rapid increase in concentration at calving and a decrease after calving. Gas chromatography analysis demonstrated reversed phase changes of some serum fatty acids. Palmitic acid (C16: 0) and oleic acid (C18: 1) increased at calving and then decreased. Linoleic acid (C18: 2) showed a marked decrease in relative ratio before calving. It increased to be a maximum component at 8 weeks after calving. The ketotic cows showed a greater increase in FFA concentration than the normal cows at calving, maintaining a high level of FFA after calving. They presented a much lower linoleic acid concentration at calving than the normal cows and a low rate of increase in this concentration after calving.
Progesterone concentrations (PC's) in blood plasma and skim milk were estimated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in dairy cows in the estrous period and in pregnant cows. Samples were collected nine times at 3 days' intervals after estrus or insemination and examined by an EIA kit produced in West Germany. Pregnancy was diagnosed by the non-return method and rectal examination. When examined 22 days of the expectant day of next estrus, both plasma and milk PC's wre significantly higher (P<0.01) in the pregnant cows than in the other cows. When 88 dairy cows wre examined 21-23 days after insemination, there was a significant correlation (P<0.01) between plasma and milk PC's in them. The hitting rate of pregnancy and that of sterility were calculated on the condition that pregnancy was positive when PC was 1 ng/ml or more. They were 81.6%(40/49) and 97.4%(38/39), respectively, as calculated from plasma PC, and 76.9%(30/39) and 88.4%(38/43), respectively, as calculated from milk PC. PC's were indicated to be of practical value for diagnosis of early pregnancy in cows.
We encountered 19 cases of canine babesiosis which were not previously reported in Aomori prefecture. The main clinical signs were depression, decrease of appetite, excretion of brownish urine and pallor of the visible mucous membrane. A remarkable regenerative anemia was peculiar in blood examinations. On Giemsa stained blood smears, parasitism of small protozoa was confirmed in erythrocytes. The protozoa appeared to be Babesia gibsoni because of morphological characteristics. Urine analysis was done in 11 cases. A marked increase in bilirubin excretion was observed in all the 11 cases and hemoglobinuria in 7 cases. According to the above findings, the 11 cases were diagnosed as Babesia gibsoni infection. Almost all the cases recovered in about 10 days after fluid therapy and administration of diminazene aceturate.
Mature females ofDirofilaria immitisalways pass degenerated eggs, together with microfilariae, into the blood. In order to know the degenerating process of eggs, heartworms of known age were examined for the morphology and rate of degenerated uterine eggs. In 1- to 3-year-old female worms, most degenerated eggs contained atrophic embryonic cells, whereas those in worms older than these had a hypercleavaged embryo. In the younger females worms, early degenerated eggs were found at the rate of 10% in the upper one-tenth part of the uterus where normally developing eggs had about 20 cells. The rate of degenerated eggs increased in parallel with the age of mother worms and reached 100% in the older worms, which had a great deal of dust-like substance in the lowest part of the uterus. The cause of degeneration of eggs was complicated. It was thought to be abnormality in spermatozoa, ova and uterus, hyperdivision of embryonic cells, and so on. Degenerated eggs were frequently detected in blood obtained from the lungs of old infected dogs with many heartworms, although microfilariae were hardly or in small numbers detected in the peripheral blood of these dogs.
So-called liver degeneration (LD) in pigs (the liver becomes dull yellow) was rather high in incidence among pigs slaughtered long after the last feeding. When pigs were fasted experimentally for 46 hours or over, LD developed among them at a high rate. It was suggested that LD was caused principally by long period of fast and thirst from last feeding in farm to slaughter time, followed much stressor.
In swabs of equipments and worker's hands and chilling water, etc. in broiler processing plants, the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni/coli was high (11.1, -88.9%), that of Staphylococcus aureus was similar to that of C. jejunifroli, which were followed by that of Yersinia spp. Salmonella spp. were low in incidence (0-8.9%). Chilling water containing 30-50 ppm chlorine was not capable of disinfecting chicken carcasses. Whether carcasses were cut up before or after evisceration, bacterial contamination was similar in final products. C. jejuni/coli was isolated very frequently from the broiler intestine (76.9%), swabs of carcass surfaces and chicken meat ready for packaging or sale (31.9-50.6%). The positive rates of S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. were low in the broiler intestine (2.1-5.3%). The contamination rate of S. aureus was high in final products (41.6-57.1%). The positive rates of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp.(0-46.3% and 10.9-25.0%, respectively) were higher in the final products than in the intestine.
The attenuated HT- strain produced Fujisaki et al. was adapted to primary swine kidney (SK) cell culture by repeating passages at 32°C, treating by UV irradiation and heating. As a result, it was possible to establish a low-temperature-adapted HT--SK-C strain, which showed a maximum growth at 32°C, without being contaminated with any other viruses. The characterization of this strain was as follows. The infectivity titer at 32deg;C was 106.3 TCID50/ml in ESK cells. The TS marker of the strain was rct/37-, rct/40-, each EOG being estimated to be 4.3 and above 5.8. When this strain was shifted up to 37deg;C for 3 serial passages, the infectivity titer was under 101.0TCID50/ml and EOG at 37deg;C estimated to be above 3.8. Five qineapigs were inoculated subcutaneously with 106.3TCID50/ml of this strain. In them, HI titer was 80. 121 (GM) 4-5 weeks after and 8 weeks 92 after inoculation.
A total of 177 serum samples were collected from the jugular vein by the conventional method and from the the coccygeal vein into heparinized and untreated hematocrit capillaries. They were subjected to the antibody test of Aujeszky's disease by the ELISA method. When OD values obtained were compared, the coefficient of correlation was r = 0.987 between serum collected in the heparinized capillary and jugular serum and r = 0.996 between serum collected in the untreated capillary and jugular serum. Since serum collected in the untreated capillary showed a higher correlation than serum collected in the heparinized capillary, the method with the former serum was indicated to be useful for the antibody test by the ELISA test performed with serum samples of small quantity.
Myeloid leukemia was found in a 2-year-old crossbred sow. Cut sections of involved organs and neoplastic nodules showed a greenish colored appearance. Neoplastic proliferation was observed in the spleen, kidneys, heart, lungs, lymph nodes, uterus and ovaries. Tumor cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and relatively broad basophilic cytoplasm predominated. Ultrastructurally, they had peroxidase-positive granules, moderately developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and abundant ribosomes in the cytoplasm.