A serological survey conducted in Okayama Prefecture from September to November, 2001, revealed that 35% of the farms and 27.6% of sentinel calves investigated were positive for antibodies to the Akabane virus (AKAV). The virus was isolated from erythrocytes and blood plasma of a sentinel calf in late September. As a result of the cross-neutralization (NT) test, the isolates demonstrated various antigenic relationships to the reference (JaGAr39) strain and a distinct antigenic relationship with a highly virulent AKAV known as the Iriki strain. SRNA sequence data identified the isolate as the same as reported AKAVs. Phylogenetic analysis with known AKAVs put the isolate in the cluster that includes the Iriki strain, but in a very divergent position. These results suggest that the isolate may be a new genotype.
We conducted clinical diagnostic imaging and histological examinations of a 7-year-old male flat-coated retriever witK a tumor on the knee of the left hind leg, which it carried in a raised position. Although no pannus was identified, lymphocytes and plasma cells predominated in the fluid of the bilateral joints. We therefore diagnosed the condition as lymphocytic-plasmacytic gonarthritis. Immunological findings suggest that an imbalance in the T-cell subset of the local knee joint may have induced the gonarthritis.
Cytological examination showed a large subcutaneous mass on the right lateral elbow of a 5-year-old boxer dog to be pyogranulomatous dermatitis. The entire mass was excised. Because histopathological examination revealed fungal hyphae ofNocardia, we diagnosed pyogranulomatous dermatitis caused byNocardiasubspecies. Long-term adjunctive antibiotic therapy was applied. The large open wound was washed frequently and treated with chitosan, which has incarnant effects. In addition, the wound was covered with chitin-coating dressing as an epithelialization accelerator. On the 60th day, the wound had been reduced about one-tenth from its original size and on the 74th day one-fiftieth. On the 88th day, it was fully closed. After 18 months, there has been no recurrence of the disease.
Multiplex PCR tests identified 69 strains of mycobacteria originated in pigs from 5 Japanese meat-inspection centers as Mycobacterium avium (M. avium). The sensitivities of 24 strains to 9 antibiotics were tested. All strains were shown to be 8 times more sensitive to streptomycin, rifampicin, clarithromycin, and amikacin than is indicated by previously reported data on M. avium strains originating in human beings . Measurements of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by spleen cells or blood monocytes isolated from normal or infected pigs showed that IFN-γwas produced in the swine-mycobacteriosis group if they were stimulated by the M. avium antigen in vitro. No production was observed in the healthy control group. This suggests that IFN-γassay is a valuable method for diagnosis of M. avium infection in swine.
Within a relatively short period after Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) screening test employing the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay was implemented in Japanese meat-inspection centers on October 18, 2001, we were able to examine 140 head of cattle per day. This was possible because of such instrument improvements as a modified medical spoon and a small, zippered sample bag for collecting brain stems. Of the 36, 870 head we had treated by the end of December, 2002, 81 were subjected to retests. All retested samples, including a specimen further subjected to a confirmation test, turned out to be negative. In addition, we classified the cattle by species, sex, and age and compared optical densities (OD) among the groups. The OD values of old cows were found to be slightly, but significantly, higher than those of younger animals (P<0.05).