Changes of both serum and urinary myoglobin.(Mb) levels in 52 cows with parturient paresis were examined. Eight cows either died or were slaughtered, while the others recovered 1 to 3 days after therapy. Hypocalcemia below 8mg/100ml was found in 77 per cent of the cows at the onset. All cows with parturient paresis at the onset showed high levels of serum Mb (over 320 ng/ml), and urinary Mb levels in 80.8 per cent of the cows obviously increased. Slaughtered cows showed higher levels of serum and urinary Mb than those surviving, and Mb levels in cows with low concentrations of serum calcium (below 6mg/100ml) were significantly high. Serum Mb in surviving cases maintained high levels during recumbency and then rapidly returned to the normal levels after 2 to 3 days of recovery. Since high levels of serum Mb in cows slaughtered were detected until the last treatment of parturient paresis, muscular damage of these cows continuously occurred from the onset to the last treatment. However, urinary Mb levels did not show the same changes as serum Mb. Pathologically, myodegeneration of skeletal muscle was observed in slaughtered cases; however, serum enzyme activities (CPK, LDH5, GOT) at the onset were found within the normal range in many of the cases. It was considered that the state of muscular damage of cows with parturient paresis could be determined by the measurement of serum Mb, and accurately diagnosed with early detection of disease.
Five Aberdeen Angus calves and one Hereford calf, 16 to 62 days of age, were studied. Of these six, two showed sudden death and four died within 5 days at the onset of therapy with injection of tocopherol, tocopherol and selenium, and cardiotonic. The calves showed clinical symptoms of tachycardia, tachypnea and cyanosis without stiff gait or recumbency. Serum enzyme activities (GOT, GPT, CPK, LDH) increased, and especially activity of LDH1 of LDH isoenzyme was high. Electrocardiogram of one calf showed sinus tachycardia and elevated ST wave. Pathologically, cardiac muscle of all calves affected the left ventricle and interventricular septum with the lesions of greyish white streaks. Histologic examination of the heart revealed severe degeneration of cardiac muscle cells, and skeletal muscle showed slight lesions, but one calf was not affected. All calves showed a marked decrease in serum tocopherol (66.1±43.7ug/dl in average) and selenium (10.2±6.0 ppb in average), and in tocopherol and selenium of organs. The contents of selenium in foodstuffs supplied in the farms were markedly low levels below 0.1 ppm D. M and a-tocopherol less than 3mg/100g D. M. It was considered that these calves were cardiac type of white muscle disease caused by deficiencies of tocopherol and selenium.
In order to study an early detection of bovine clinical and subclinical urolithiasis by using ultrasonography (US), the relation between ultrasonograms and necropsy was examined on 78 kidneys (right, 62; left, 16) in 62 Holstein-Friesian cows with various diseases. In 52 of the 78 kidneys, stones in renal pelvics by US were observed, and they were classified into 3 types according to form of strong echo (SE) and acoustic shadow (AS) behind SE due to renal stone. Type I (5 kidneys) imaged as a shell-like-formed SE and wide AS; these kidneys had a large amount of calculi in renal calyxes in necropsy. Type II (33 kidneys) imaged as a spotty SE and narrow AS; these kidneys had a nearly 10mm in diameter stone or mass of many 1.5mm stones in necropsy. Type III (14 kidneys) imaged as a tiny or unclearly SE and thin AS; all but one of these kidneys had a rice-size stone or mass of nearly 0.5mm stones in necropsy. In 72 of the 78 kidneys (92.3%), ultrasonograms of renal pelvic stones were in accord with necropsy. It was clarified that stones bigger than 2-4mm in diameter in renal calyxes are able to be detected by using US. These results indicate that the US can be applied for early detection of bovine urolithiasis.
Four cases of deliveries of sickly calves suffering from hypoplasia, dysstasia and dysphagia occured successively at a Japanese Black cattle farm in Yamagata Prefecture during April to June, 1982. At autopsy, necrotic foci in liver parenchyma and hyperplasia of bile duct walls were recognized in a calf. Moreover, a mature fluke was detected in the rumen and fasciola eggs were also detected in the feces of this calf. Histopathologically, in the liver of 3 calves, fibroplasia, hyperplasia of bile duct walls and infiltration of eosinocytes were recognized. Furthermore, migratory tracts caused by worms, young migrating flukes and fasciola egg nodules were also observed in the liver. In the lungs of these calves, exudative changes of pulmonary alveoli with fibrin, eosinocytes and macrophages, and infiltration of eosinocytes into stromal tissue were observed. Haemato-biochemical findings on these same three sickly calves, as well as their maternal cattle and others that fed with them generally suggested chronic hepatitis. Furthermore, either agargelprecipitation reaction or parasitological egg examination on the above mentioned animals showed positives results.
Effects of S. miescheriana-infections on body weight gains in pigs wereinvestigated. No effects were observed in pigs inoculated with 102 or 103 sporocysts. Pigs inoculated with 104 sporocysts showed mild diarrhea and anorexia, and slight depression of body weight gain, while those inoculated with 105 sporocysts developed diarrhea, anorexia, increased respiratory and pulse rates, and marked depression of body weight gain. Pigs inoculated with 5×105 sporocysts developed the typical symptoms of acute sarcocystosis and died 15 days after inoculation. Consequently, inoculation with more than 105 sporocysts resulted in marked depression of body weight gain in pigs.
Two newborn calves with congenital malformations were subjected to the epizootiological, pathological, and serological examinations. They showed ataxia and blindness. At autopsy, cerebellar hypoplasia and reduction in size of the optic nerves were observed in both cases, in addition to severe hydrocephalus in one case. Microscopically, diminution and irregular arrangement of granular and Purkinje cells, heterotopia of Purkinje cells in the cortex, and cavitation in the medullary plates of the cerebellum were all observed. The rod and cone cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina and nerve fibers in the optic nerves were notably decreased in number. Neutralizing antibody against bovine viral diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD) virus was demonstrated in the postcolostrous sera of both cases. An epizootiological survey revealed that the dam of one case might have become infected with the virus on a public pasture where the animal had been grazed during a period from the 3rd to the 8th month of gestation, and the other dam suffered from temporary diarrhea at the 5th month of gestation, suggesting infection with BVD-MD virus. Based on the data collected, the present cases were diagnosed as BVD-MD caused by intrauterine infection.
Bovine respiratory disease occured on T dairy farm in Saitama prefecture in April, 1986. Nine cattle of two herd introduced to the farm before two weeks were shown respiratory symptons and other signs. One of them died and other recovered. In necropsy, carcase revealed fibrinous pneumoniae. Histopathologically, the interlobular septum, broncholes, and alveoli filled with fibrin, edematous fluid, macrophages, neutrophils and erythrocytes. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated in pure culture from lungs. The isolate was determined to be serover 1 and biovar A, and has sensitive to AB-PC, PC, KM and TC. Serum agglutinin titers againstP. haemolyticain affected cattle, including the one that died, ranged from 1: 10 to 40 at introduction, and increased to 1: 160≥1:640 2 weeks later. Furthermore, neutralization antibody titers against Bovine RS virus increased, however, Bovine adeno-7 virus, PI-3 virus, IBR virus and Bovine Rhino virus were unchanged. Mycoplasmas and viruses were not isolated from the lung or cerebrum of the carcase. From these results, the disease was diagnosed as P. haemolytica infection, associated with BRS virus infection as inducer.
Two cases of malignant nephroblastoma were found in 4-and 6-year old Holstein-Friesian cows. Macroscopically, the right kidney was occupied with the tumor in both cases. Metastatic lesions were found in the lung, pericardium, and pleura in one case, and in the liver and omentum in the other case. The tumor cell had an oval or spindle shaped nucleus containing abundant chromatin. In both cases, tubular and proglomerular structures were seen in the cellular parts of original tumors. A few tubular or pseudotubular structures were observed in the metastatic tumors.
Malignant catarrhal fever was diagnosed in four fattening cattle on a farm where two male Suffolk sheep had been reared together with cattle. The clinical signs of the 4 cattle included pyrexia, bilateral corneal opacity and erosions of muzzle, and they were unable to stand. One of them was autopsied. The superficial lymph nodes were enlarged. Many white spots were observed in the kidneys, and the bronchi were filled with red foamy exudate. Erosions and ulcers were present in the upper alimentary tract. Histologically, perivascular infiltration of mononuclear cells was seen throughout the body. The antibody titer to alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 was determined 1: 512 by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, using infected cultured bovine kidney cells as antigen.