An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to an early diagnosis of naturally occurring Rhodococcus equi (R. equi) infection in foals. Of 247 sera from foals with suspected acute bacterial infection, 149 (60.3%) were positive for antibody to R. equi. The antibody-positive rates of foals with pneumonia, enteritis, and arthritis were 77.5%, 53.2%, and 30.6%, respectively. All sera from 4 foals with both pneumonia and enteritis were positive for antibody. No statistical difference was found among the sexes or breeds on an antibody-positive rate. A comparison was made between ELISA and Agar-gel immunodiffusion (AGID) using serum samples from 60 foals with suspected acute inflammation. The ELISA OD values of individual foal sera showed a significant correlation (γ = 0.86, p<0.01) with their AGID titers.
In January 1985, an acute disease of calves charactrized by respiratory signs and digestive tract disorders occurred on a farm where 27 breeding cattle and 16 calves of the Japanese indigenous Black breed were reared. All calves fell ill with fever up to 39.0-43°C, depression, anorexia, respiratory distress, coughing, nasal discharge, and profuse scouring accompanied by blood and mucus. Four of them, 4 and 5 months of age, were severely affected developed watery diarrhea accompanied by periodic tenesmus, dysuria, and dehydration, and died 4 to 5 days after the onset of illness. At necropsy, main lesions were congestion and hemorrhage in the mucosa of the alimehtary tract, which contained a dark brown fluid with blood. The microscopic lesions in the mucosa of the tongue, soft palate, esophagus and abomasum were hemorrhage, erosion and necrosis. In the intestinal tract, desquamation of the epithelial cells, mild cellular infiltration and remarkable necrotic thickening of the mucosa were evident. Virologically, cytopathogenic bovine diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD) virus was isolated from the nasal discharge and diarrheal feces of 4 affected animals, and from the brain, lung, heart, spleen, liver, rectum, and maxillary lymph nodes of 2 dead animals. Noncytopathogenic BVD-MD virus was also isolated from the spleen and kidney of these dead animals. The incidence of neutralizing antibody against the Nose strain of cytopathogenic BVD-MD virus in bovine sera collected in 1981, 1984, and 1991 in Hiroshima Prefecuture was 49%, 49%, and 64% respectively.
Clinical and biochemical changes were examined in a Japanese Black cow with a swelling of the intercarpal joint. Hematological examination revealed a marked increase in serum lipid peroxide concentration during the 7th to 4th weeks before the onset of clinical signs. No significant changes were found during the observation period in biological antioxidant factors, such as SOD, GSH-PX activity, or Se concentration. However, since the serum α-Toc concentration in this cow had been decreased before the onset, it may be considered that α-Toc was massively mobilized and consumed to suppress the production of peroxides which increased due to tissue damage resulting from the destruction of the cartilage caused locally by overload.
The effect of vitamin E (1, 000 mg) injected intramuscularly once, twice or three times at 5-day intervals several days before parturition on excretion hours of fetal membrane in mares was examined. In the group with no treatment of vitamin E, the rates of mares with fetal membrane excretion over 60 minutes were 11.1% of the group above 300μg/100 ml of serum tocopherol levels, but 33.3% in the mares below 300μg/100 ml. In the group with vitamin E injection, all mares showing low levels of serum tocopherol below 300μg/100 ml excreted the fetal membrane within 60 minutes, and the hours were significantly (p<0.05) less than the non-treated group. The serum selenium and blood glutathione peroxidase activities of the mares examined were at normal levels, and were not related to the times of fetal membrane excretion.
Radical prevention of traumatic diseases in dairy cattle includes not only implanting permanent magnets in the reticulum but also in clearing the environment of metal. The occurrence and nature of metal in cow pastures and yards on 2 dairy farms were examined using a metal collecting instrument. In all areas, many pieces of metal were collected. In a new facility, many sharp pieces of metal which fell to the ground during construction were collected. This study shows that there are many pieces of metal causing traumatic diseases where cows are kept, and that the use of a metal collecting instrument is an effective way to remove the metals.
A 6-month-old Japanese Black steer suffering from rupture of the urinary bladder due to urolithiasis was referred to Yamaguchi University Veterinary Hospital. On the first examination, dysuria was recognized, and the blood nitrogen urea and plasma creatinine levels were 137.3 mg/dl and 11.5 mg/dl, respectively. Operation was promptly made on the inguinal area under local anesthesia on right recumbency. The surgical method was as follows: A fistula made of a 12 ml plastic syringe with a sharp tip, which was made by cutting its pointed end, was inserted into the cavity of the bladder from the ruptured portion. After the ruptured portion was sutured with an absorbable suture, the fistula was guided outside of the skin penetrating from the bladder, peritoneum, muscle layers, and skin. A stopper made of a plastic syringe was fitted in the cruciate by needles on the tip of the fistula guided to the outside. On the 2nd day after the surgery, the calf's uremia had improved, and recurrence was not observed for more than one year after that. From the present case, This procedure using plastic syringes is thought to be useful as a salvage to urolithiasis in calves.
An outbreak of canine parvovirus infection was recognized in east Saitama pref. from 1981 to 1983. The prevalence of the infection diminished in inverse proportion to the vaccination ratio. Here were no noticeable differences in epidemic between ages and between caring sites, and also between sexes. Inactivated canine parvovirus vaccine added adjuvant successfully protected the dogs from virulent virus. Attenuated live canine parvovirus vaccine induced greater immune responses.
The effects of anticoagulants on the separation of canine neutrophils using a coverslip were investigated in 10 clinically healthy dogs. Adherence of neutrophils to the coverslip surface was not observed with blood containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA·2 Na) or sodium fluoride. The number of separated viable neutrophils using heparin sodium salt was significantly smaller than the sample with no anticoagulant (p<0.001). The separated neutrophil number using heparin is considered to be adequate for the qualitative function test.
The serum iron level, unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC), and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were examined before and after treatment in 8 dogs naturally infected with Babesia gibsoni. The serum iron level was significantly higher (p<0.001) and the UIBC was significantly lower (p<0.001) in dogs infected with Babesia gibsoni before treatment than in uninfected dogs. The serum iron level and UIBC in infected dogs after treatment were similar to the values in uninfected dogs. The TIBC revealed no differences between infected and uninfected dogs.
Clinical safety and prophylactic efficacy of milbemycin oxime against heartworm infection were evaluated in 59 Collies consisting of 16 rough-coated Collies, 40 Shelties, and 3 Bearded Collies. Milbemycin oxime was administered orally to the dogs 6 times from June to November at a monthly dose of over 0.25 mg/kg (prophylactic dose to heartworm infection). After the first administration, no abnormal findings were noticed in 58 dogs, but 1 rough-coated Collie showed salivation for 1 hr after administration. From the 2nd to 6th administrations, no dogs treated showed any abnormal findings. Examinations performed in April of the year following had been treatment detected no circulating microfilariae in any dogs, including the 4 dogs which microfilaremic in the previous year. It was considered that milbemycin oxime could be safely used to Collies as a prophylactic against heartworm infection.
A method for detecting residual bacitracin (BC) in pork and chicken by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Fluorescence of BC was used for this detection. BC was extracted from samples with 33% pyridine solution, and the extracted solution was deproteinized with methanol. The deproteinized solution was evaporated to 3 ml, and then injected into an Inertsil ODS-2 (6mm I. D.×125 mm) HPLC column. BC was separated with a solution containing 40% methanol as a mobile phase and measured with a fluorescence detector (EX 270 nm, EM 350 nm). The recoveries of BC added to pork and chicken at 0.5u/g were 84% and 81%, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.0375u/ml. This method is applicable to monitoring of residual BC in pork and chicken inspection.