Fourty-seven cattle (11 heifers, 11 first-calf heifers, 13 second-calf cows and 12 mature cows) housed in a cubicle system one week after calving, were examined for changes in the hind claws at one month intervals two months before to three months after calving. All the feet were trimmed at two months before calving. The abaxial wall of the outer claw increased in length and the weight bearing surface of the inner claw decreased in area significantly at two months after calving, resulting in a distinct difference between the inner and the outer claw shape. A high prevalence of the white line defect and heel erosion was detected at calving and persisted up to 3 months postcalving. Sole haemorrhage was most prevalent two to three months after calving, being significantly higher at the outer claw. The occurrence of foot diseases seemed to be due to the subclinical sole lesions and lost effects of the hoof trimming after calving.
Plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), thyroid hormone (T3 and T4), and vitamin A concentrations were examined in Japanese Black beef calves with marked retarded growth having diarrhea, pneumonia, coccidiosis or strongyloidiasis. Plasma GH concentrations were significantly higher in calves with retarded growth (23 cases; 14.3±9.5ng/ml) showing a rhythmical change as compared with that in clinically healthy ones (6 cases; 2.9±1.0ng/ml) showing no rhythmic secretion. Plasma IGF-1 and vitamin A concentrations were significantly lower in calves with retarded growth (30.1±15.7ng/ml and 15.7±7.7, μg/dl, respectively) as compared with those in clinically healthy ones (120.5±64.9ng/ml and 29.2±5.4μg/dl, respectively). There was no difference in plasma T3 and T4 concentrations between the two groups. These findings suggested that the retarded growth resulted from some endocrinological disturbances and malnutrition due to diarrhea, pneumonia or parasite infestations and that the estimation of plasma IGF-1 concentrations might be useful for prognosis.
A2-year-2-month-old female Borzoi dog with fever, cough, pendulous abdomen, and weight loss, was revealed to have systolic and diastolic murmurs and radiographic cardiomegaly. Electrocardiography showed ventricular premature contractions and atrial fibrillation, and echocardiography indicated thickening of the mitral and tricuspid valves, marked enlargement of the left atrium and ventricle, enlargement of the right atrium and ventricle, and smoke-like echo. Color flow Doppler ultrasonography showed severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation. The case was diagnosed as severe congestive heart failure with atrioventricular valvular insufficiency, treated with the diuretics, cardiac glycosides, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β1-blocker, coronary vasodilator. and antibiotics, and survived for 310 days after the first examination.
A 4-year-old male setter dog weighing 20 kg with depression, intermittent severe generalized seizure and circling to the left, was neurologically revealed to have exaggerated reflexes of both patellar tendons and elevated protein content and total cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF Pandy's test was positive, and magnetic resonance images demonstrated an irregular shaped mass, approximately 30 mm in diameter, in the left forebrain. The surgically removed mass histopathologically consisted of proliferated small spindle-shaped cells with whorl arrangement and occasional psammoma bodies, and was diagnosed as meningioma. The case was getting better, but he died of status epilepsy 5 months after the operation.
A tumor mass 10×8×5cm in diameter, arising at the retrapolathalmic temporal region of a 17-year-old female mongrel dog, was examined histopathologically and diagnosed as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The mass consisted of solid proliferation of spindle-shaped neoplastic cells showing fascicular arrangement with some myxomatous stroma or abundant collagen deposit. Metastasis was seen in the local lymph nodes. Some tumor cells were immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein, and electoron microscopy revealed the tumor cells had desmosomes and a severely atypical nucleus.
A total of 39 strains (21 serotypes including O157) of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) were isolated from 316 rectal contents and 731 carcass swab samples of cattle at a slaughter house. Ten (2 serotypes) O157 isolates were from 7 out of 316 (2.2%) rectal contents and 3 out of 731 (0.4%) swab samples of flayed carcasses, while 29 (19 serotypes) of other STEC isolates were from12 out of 243 (4.9%) rectal contents and 16 out of 731 (2.2%) swab samples of flayed carcass. All the O157 isolates and only one isolate of O118: H-possessed an Escherichia coli attaching and effacing gene (eae), encoding the protein Intimin, which is thought to be responsible for enteropathogenicity.