Changes in blood gas were mainly studied on animals of various sizes with their thorax left open in order to obtain basic data on oxygen supply at the time of thoracotomy in large animals. When the thorax was left open for 60 to 70 minutes in one cow, six goats, and six dogs, all of which were allowed to lie on their right side, five goats and four dogs died. When determined 5 to 10 minutes after thoracotomy, oxygen content and saturation degree showed a decrease in the blood. Total carbon dioxide content increased a little immediately after thoracotomy and then decreased gradually. On the other hand, PCO2 and H2CO3 increased and pH decreased remarkably. Body temperature lowered. An increase was shown in red and white blood counts, hematocrit value, and hemoglobin and globulin contents. As a result, pyknemia was caused.
Dithiazanine iodide, or 3-ethyl-2-[5-(3-ethyl-2-benzothiazolinylidene)-1, 3-pentadienyl] benzothiazolium iodide, has been utilized in America since 1958. Experiments were carried out on the anthelmintic effect of this chemical upon lungworms and intestinal parasites of swine. When a daily dose of 50 mg per kg of body weight was given for 3 consecutive days, the reduction rate of lungworm eggs became 41%. The chemical had no remarkable effect on lungworms. In 3 cases, however, egg detection turned to be negative. The reduction rates of intestinal parasites were 98% for Trichuris suis, 73% for Strongyloides ransomi, 59% for Oesophagostornum dentatum, and 57% for Ascaris snilla. Although the reduction rate of Ascaris snilla eggs was lower in the present experiment than in those performed by SWARTZWELDER et al. and other workers, the wide-range effect of this chemical was well proved. Besides, when administered with 100 mg per kg body weight, pigs showed such side reactions as poor appetite and diarrhea. The limit of dosage of this chemical was thought to be 50mg per kg of body weight. For practical purposes, it is recommended to use 30mg per kg of body weight every 5 days.
A survey was carried out on Salmonella distribution among house rats in Hiroshima City in February, 1960. The materials used were feces (rectal contents) collected aseptically from house rats. Bacterial detection was performed on the feces by enrichment cultivation techniques (with selenite broth-, McConkey agar). The results obtained are as follows. 1. From the feces of 102 house rats, 3 strains (2.9 per cent) of Salmonella were detected. 2. These strains were classified into 2 types: 2 strains of S. enteritidis, 1 strain of S. senftenberg.
Commercial specimens of desiccated chick-embryo-adapted living distemper vaccine were examined for virus content and divided into three classes, A, B and C. The LD50 values were 2.27 to 2.43 in class A vaccine, 1.25 to 1.58 in class Bvaccine, and less than zero in class C vaccine. These samples were injected into ferrets. As a result, class A vaccine conferred power of defense against infection to the injected animals. Of six animals inoculated with class B vaccine, one died from infection. No protective power was given to animals injected with class C vaccine. The power of producing neutralizing antibodies conferred to inoculated animals was in proportion to the virus content of the vaccine inoculated. Two specimens of vaccine prepared by different commercial laboratories had different power of producing such antibodies. No difference was observed, however, in the power of neutralizing different strains of virus among the vaccine specimens studied.
It has been experienced that febrile response appears in experimental tuberculous cattle tested intradermally with tuberculin and that it still appears in repeated tuberculin tests carried out every three or more weeks, but that intradermal test becomes to be weakened or negative. From such experience, febrile response in intradermal test deserves much attention in the control of bovine tuberculosis. During the febrile response, a significant decrease in lymphocyte count and an increase in neutrophil count were observed in the blood picture. The same finding was obtained from the blood picture of a hypersensitized rabbit infected with 0.5mg of tuberculoprotein extracted from bacillary body with 0.2 NaOH. The febrile response was observed in hypersensitized rabbits so treated, but not in health ones in which little significant change was observed in the blood picture. The influence of daily intraveous injection of tuberculoprotein on the febrile response of hypersensitized rabbits was examined. As a result, it was made clear that febrile response disappeared in some of the treated rabbits after successive intravenous injection. Tuberculin fever, even if it appeared, disappeared soon after successive injection. Early tissue reaction was examined, by the trypan blue method, in tuberculin tests on hypersensitized guinea pigs, in which distinot bluing of the site of tuberculin injection was observed.