We measured porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) DNA loads in 112 pigs to evaluate the risk of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) using quantitative real-time PCR. The pigs had been imported into Japan from a farm in 2013 and were suspected of having acquired a PCV2 infection during the previous survey. They were unsystematically inoculated with PCV2 vaccine at four to 11 weeks old, in other words, approximately one month prior to import. It was uncertain if the unsystematic vaccination had effectively prevented the development of PCVAD symptoms. Subsequently, PCV2 was detected in 84 serum samples. PCV2 DNA loads were detectable at the range of 103 to 108 copies/ml, and the geometric mean value was 6.0×104 copies/ml. Although the pigs evaluated in this study were mostly 10 to 15 weeks old and generally exhibited a high viral load, the results suggested that PCV2 replication in pigs was relatively restricted, which prevented the development of PCVAD symptoms.
A 12-year-old, neutered, male Shih Tzu presented with acute vomiting and abdominal distention. Percutaneous decompression was performed as abdominal radiography revealed suspected gastric dilatation. Approximately one liter of gas and liquid was aspirated from the stomach. Subsequently, the patient entered stable condition. Six days after percutaneous decompression, the dog was in good condition, with a healthy appetite and bowel movements. However, one month later, the dog exhibited abdominal distention again, and abdominal radiography revealed gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV). Because there were no clinical symptoms except for abdominal distention, percutaneous decompression was performed again. The next day, the condition persisted and laparotomy was performed. Gastric volvulus, malposition of the spleen and small intestine were observed. A belt-loop gastropexy was performed after repositioning the abdominal organs. Postoperative abdominal radiography showed the correct position of the stomach, spleen, and small intestine. Even small dog breeds have a risk of GDV. In this case, the abnormal consumption of snow may have been involved in the onset of GDV as the owner commented that the dog had consumed snow during a walk before exhibiting clinical symptoms.
To investigate seasonal contamination of Campylobacter in retail chicken meat from May 2016 to April 2017, we qualitatively and quantitatively isolated Campylobacter spp. Twenty-seven samples of chicken meat were tested monthly and 324 samples of chicken meat were tested annually. Overall, 52% of chicken meat was contaminated with Campylobacter, the highest rate was 81% in September, the lowest rate was 3.7% in March, and a clear peak was observed in September. Twenty percent of positive chicken meat samples were able to quantify the presence of Campylobacter spp., with 5 to 55 cfu/g of Campylobacter. Although Campylobacter jejuni was detected monthly, Campylobacter coli was limited to May through October. The peak Campylobacter contamination rate in chicken meat did not seasonally coincide with the peak of the number of patients with foodborne illness from Campylobacter. There was no direct relation between the seasonality of patients and chicken meat contaminated with Campylobacter; however, it was thought that multiple factors were intricately connected.