AflatoxinB1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) present in six crops used as feed at three dairies (A-, B-and C-farms) with low productivity were investigated. The AFB1 concentration of forage was 30.7ppb (A-farm) and 37.8ppb (B-farm). Both farms were experiencing a high mortality risk, including sudden death. At C-farm, which was experiencing low fertility and many transient cow diseases with abortion, the ZEN concentration of rice straw was 491.6ppb. After the addition of mycotoxin binder in feed, the presence of T-cells in particular has significantly increased in the lymphocytes subpopulation, and no sudden death has occurred at A-farm or B-farm. At C-farm, reproduction has remarkably improved, and no transient cow disease has occurred. It is therefore concluded that mycotoxin contamination in crops has a strong correlation with the incidence of disease in dairy cows, and also that mycotoxin binder can be expected to reduce its harmful influences in the field.
Seventeen pregnant cows were assigned randomly to treatment or control groups; the former group consisting of twelve cows received a single intravaginal dose of0.125μg of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1, 25 (OH) 2D3]/kg of body weight at the 275th day of pregnancy, and the latter group consisting of five cows received only 6 ml of 20% ethanol solvent on the same days. The changes in the plasma concentration of 1, 25 (OH) 2D3 and minerals were evaluated. Compared to the baseline (0 hours) level in the treated group, significant differences were found in 1, 25 (OH) 2D3 at two hours, in Ca at 12 hours and in i P at 12 hours after administration. In conclusion, it was suggested that intravaginal administration of 1, 25 (OH) 2D3 offers a possible alternative treatment of prophylaxis of parturient hypocalcemia.
Thirteen American Cocker Spaniels presented with lens-induced uveitis (LIU) and cataract resorption (CR) symptoms. Ages ranged from nine months through five years and body weights ranged from 8.5kg through 12.6kg. Twenty-three of the eyes showed cataracts. The average intraocular pressure of 18 LIU eyes was 11.2 mm Hg and nine eyes showed a reduced lens thickness, in three of which vision was restored. The percentage restoration of vision in the 12 eyes that were operated withphacoemulsification was 100% and 83.3% two and six weeks postoperation, respectively. An histopathologic examination of the anterior lens capsule showed multilayer proliferation of lens epithelial cells as convexoconcave changes on the lenssurface and swelling of lens fibrocytes, as well as actin-positive myofibroblasts. LIU should be treated when CR is progressing, and the operation should be postponed for one to two months. For LIU without CR, early operation is recommendedafter medical treatment.
We evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic antiglaucoma therapy with timolol maleate ophthalmic solution dis-solved in thermosetting gel in canine primary glaucoma. In the non-treated group (n=23), all dogs had con-firmed glaucoma in the other eye within 24 months of the diagno-sis of glaucoma in the first eye. In the treat-ed group (n=19), however, 53% of dogs had confirmed glaucoma in the other eye by 36 months after diagno-sis in the first eye. The incidence in the treated group was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in the non-treated group. Dogs in the non-treated group developed glaucoma after a median of 7.7 months, whereas dog sin the treated group developed glaucoma a median of 18.7 months after theonset of glaucoma in the first eye. The median time until the onset of glaucoma in the second eye in the treated group was significantly (P<0.01) longer than that in the non-treated group. This data suggest that prophylactic antiglaucoma therapy with timolol maleate ophthalmic solution dissolved in thermosetting gel is useful for the second eye in canine primary glaucoma.