The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of the serum level of type- I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx)-originally a molecular marker of bone resorption-as a marker for detecting degradation of type-I collagen, especially in cases of equine tendonitis. NTx serum concentration, which was found to reflect tendon condition sensitively, was significantly higher in horses with tendonitis than in controls. Although its value was very high in the acute and subacute phases of tendonitis, the concentration gradually declined. In the chronic phase, there was no significant difference between NTx concentrations in horses with tendonitis and controls. This study revealed NTx to be potentially a valuable molecular marker for monitoring post-traumatic tendon condition. If an association between NTx concentration and tendinous degeneration can be established, it will become possible to identify horses with preclinical tendon injury easily.
We determined prevalences of antibodies against viruses for Akabane (AKAV), Aino (AINOV), Chuzan (CHUV), Ibaraki (IBAV), and Bovine ephemeral-fever (BEFV) among cattle herds in Kagoshima Prefecture. The presence of an epizootic of each virus was assed on the basis of the presence of seroconversion in sentinel cattle between 1994 and 2002. Epizootics of AKAV infection were observed each year; AKAV infection has been very prevalent in recent years. An epizootic of AINOV infection appearing every 3 to 4 years was associated with an outbreak of congenital malformation of calves in 1996. Seroconversion to antibodies to CHUV was found in 1997, 1998, and 2002. Seroconversion to IBAV was detected in 1997 and 1998, and an outbreak of stillbirths and abortions was reported in 1997. Vaccination rates for AKAV, AINOV, and CHUV were stable but sensitive for IBAV and CHUV. Antibody prevalence to arboviruses was studied in sera collected in the winter seasons between 2000 and 2002. The highest antibody-positive rate was with AKAV (81.6-93.8%). A highly positive rate (38.3-66.8%) was obtained for AINOV and CHUV and less positive rates for IBAV (24.8-34.8%) and BEFV (14.5-18.1%).-Key words: antibody, arthropod-borne virus, serological surveillance.
Pathological and bacteriological examinations were performed on an 80-day-old piglet demonstrating growth retardation since birth. Anorexic and listless, the animal subsequently became depressed and had difficulty standing. It died of disease in the course of four days. Macroscopic examination disclosed congestion throughout the body and verrucose endocarditis in both sides of the atrioventricular valves. In histological terms, emboli of small gram-negative rods accompanied by micro-abscesses were scattered in capillaries and arterioles throughout the body, including the central nervous system. Pure Actinobacillus equuli was isolated from endocardial lesions, the brain, and many other visceral organs. These findings suggest that lesional involvement of the central nervous system followed endocarditis and bacteremia caused by A. equuli infection. Its emergence when the piglet was already 80 days old may be one reason why the condition followed a sub-acute course of development.
Abdominal ultrasonography of a 10-year-old male Shih Tzu dog with a history of hematuria revealed large right adrenal as well as hyperechogenic regions within the caudal vena cava. Clinical examination showed elevated plasma catecholamine concentration and hypertension accompanied by hemorrhage of the bilateral ocular fundi. These findings led to a strong suspicion of pheochromocytoma. The dog was subjected to adrenalectomy. At the same time, the metastatic mass was removed from the caudal vena cava. Subsequent histopathological examination clarified the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma originating from the adrenal medula. Given postoperative chemotherapy, the dog has remained in good condition for 17 months.
Severe jaundice and significantly increased ALP values were observed in a male Shetland sheep dog (13 years and 6 months old) brought to our hospital because of vomiting, anorexia, and weakness. Ultrasonography revealed gallstones and a spherical, slightly high-echoic mass approximately 2 cm in diameter near the gallbladder base. Laparotomy was conducted, and the gallbladder was bluntly separated from the liver parenchyma. The gallstones were removed. After checking the patency of the common bile duct, the gallbladder was removed. Pathological examination of the isolated tissue revealed that the mass in the gallbladder was hepatocellular carcinoma that had infiltrated from the liver parenchyma and protruded into the gallbladder lumen. Hematological and blood-chemistry examinations and abdominal ultrasonography conducted 190 days after surgery showed no abnormalities. Furthermore, no clinical abnormalities had been observed until more than one year after surgery.
The naturally generated mineral dolomite is thought to pose no risks of environmental pollution. Dolomite processed with calcination and hydration was mixed with polyethylene (30%) and polyvinyl chloride (10%). The antibacterial activities of these resins were determined by inoculating 0.5ml of a bacterial suspension of Escherichia coli (IFO3301 strain) containing 1.5-105 colony-forming units (cfu) perml on pieces of resin sheet (50×50×1mm). Within an hour, the number of bacteria on the pieces had decreased to less than 10cfu/ml. Physical-property tests indicated that values of ultimate elongation of polyethylene mixed with 15 or 30% hydrated dolomite decreased to half the values obtained with dolomite-free polyethylene. These values approximate values obtained from commercially available polyethylene. Our results suggest that, in food-processing companies and hospitals, use of resins to which hydrated dolomite has been added in cloth, boots, wall materials, and flooring can prevent the spread of bacterial pathogens.
In cattle, prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 (O157) increases during the summer. To investigate this prevalence, we isolated 0157 from gastrointestinal contents in summertime. The bacteria were isolated from 22 of 55 (40.0%) animals. Six animals (27.3%) tested 0157-positive for rectal contents only, 10 animals for rumen contents only, and six animals for both. Thus prevalence was especially high in rumen contents. The average number of O157 bacteria in rectal contents was 44CFU/g. The maximum number was 3.8-104CFU/g, but values were<10CFU/g in more than 40% of the samples. Investigation of drug-susceptibility in all 28 isolates showed that 15 were resistant to SM, 11 to ABPC, 4 to CEZ, 4 to FOM, 3 to NA, and 2 to KM. Significantly 4 isolates (14.3%) resisted FOM, which is commonly used to treat human O157 infection.