In order to synchronize estrus and ovulation, 55 Holstein heifers were divided into four groups, I to IV which were injected intramuscularly with two doses of 0.4, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 mg, respectively, of the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) analogue, ONO-1052, at a 10-day interval. The rate of heifers which began to show standing estrus within four days after the second injection was 83.3%(l0/12), 100%(07/17) 100%(11/11), and 60%(9/15) for groups I, II, III and IV, respec-tively. It was significantly lower in group IV treated in July than in any of the other groups treated in December or February (P<0.05). The onset of estrous behavior was significantly earlier and more concentrated after the second injection than after the first. The rate of heifers in wihch ovulation occurred within five days after the second injection was 100% for groups I to III, and 86.7% for group IV. There were no statistical differences in this rate among the four groups. Conception rate at the first insemination after the second injection was 45.5, 41.2, 45.5 and 35.7% for groups I, II, III and IV, respectively. No statistical differences were observed in this rate among the four groups. These resluts indicate that treatment with the PGF2α analogue by intramuscular injection of 0.4, 0.5, 0.8 or 1.0mg of ONO-1052 twice at a 10-day interval was effective enough to induce estrus and that it was applicable to the synchronization of estrus in heifers.
A total of 135 dogs kept outdoors were used to study the prophylactic effect of invermectin against heartworm infections. Of them, seventy-six were born during a period from November, 1983 to May, 1984 and given 6-9μg/kg of ivermectin orally once a month over a period from July, 1984 to December, 1984. The other fifty-nine (59) were born during a period from Norvember, 1983 to July, 1984 were kept as non-medicated controls. All the dogs were examined for microfilariae in blood in May or June, 1985. No microfilariae were found in any medicated dog. Of the control dogs, thirty-eight were positive for microfilariae. No side effects of the drug were noticed.
Amylase activity and its isoenzymes in normal canine serum and tissues were evaluated by the amylometric method with an autoanalyzer and electrophoresis with cellulose acetate membranes (Titan III—Lipo), respectively. The nomal range (mean± S.D.) of serum amylase activity in 121 of adult dogs various breeds and in 59 experimental adult beagles was 462—1132 and 469—1257 amylase units (Smith—Roe units), respectively. For serum amylase isoenzymes were present in 5 of 38 mongrel dogs and in 12 of the 59 beagles and named amylase—1, 2, 3, and 4 from the anodic side. Their normal values were 0.10.9—22.0, 3.7—17.8, 61.4—87.5% in the 38 mongrel dogs and 0-3.2, 0-27.7, 5.5-16.8, and 59.2-84.3% in the 59 beagle. Amylase activity was detected in all tissue extracts examined, or pancreas, kidney, ovary, duo-denum, liver, uterus, sub mandibular gland, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle in the decreasing order. It was low in these tissues except pancreas. It was the same as, or lower than that of serum. Except the sub mandibular gland, all the tissue extracts contained three or four isoenzymes, as the serum did. In all the samples of pancreas, a new. band was observed on the cathodic side of amylase—4 and named amylase—5. In some samples of duodenum, uterus and overy, amylase—5 was also observed. Besides, another new band was recognized between amylase—3 and 4 and named amylase—3b. Its values were very low. These data indicate that the elevated serum amylase activity with the amylase—5 band may be useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis.
No reports have been published on feline giardiasis in Japan. Oral administration of metronidazole, in a single dose of 40 to 60 mg/kg per day for 6 or 7 days or in 2 doses of 50 mg/kg per day for 4 or 5 days, resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, and in elimination of the parasite in the feces without any recognizable clinical side effects. The drug was rather efficatious when administered together with an emplastic.
Five disinfectants were tested for virucidal efficiency on 4 DNA viruses, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, feline rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenovirus type 1 and canine parvovirus, and 6 RNA viruses, Newcastle disease virus, avian infectious bronchitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, reovirus type 3 and feline calicivirus. One cholric, 2 iodic and 2 amphoteric surface active reagents were used in vitro within the limits of no cytotoxity for cultured cells. As a result, only chloric agent had a common effect on 10 viruses. Incorporation of serum protein (10%) in the virus-disinfectant mixtures hardly affected the virucidal efficiency of the chloric agent.
A ring for sampling of one gram of feces was devised to substitute for weighing feces for the fecal egg count of helminths. It was 12mm in diameter and 8.84mm in depth, its space being one ml. A handle 100mm in lenth was attached to the ring. Fecal consistency was classified into solid, soft, diarrheal and watery diarrheal. When a fecal mass was kept in the ring, it was regarded as solid or soft. Soft feces were not released from the ring in to water by gentle shaking, but soft feces were easily. Feces that were not kept in the ring were rgearded as diarrheal or watery diarrheal. Watery diarrheal feces could be poured into the ring which was placed on paraffin paper, but diarrheal feces could not. Mean weight of solid, soft, diarrheal and watery diarrheal feces which were measured by the ring was 1.11, 1.16, 1.07 and 1.06g, respectively. They were close to 1.0g. There fore, the ring was regarded as useful for the measurement of one gram feces in practical fecal examinations of helminth and the objective judgment of fecal consistency.
A 13-month-old Japanese ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus japonicus) died in the OmachiAlpine Museum after exhibiting yellowish watery diarrhea and listlessness. Necropsy revealed a large number of white pinpoint foci in the liver and spleen. A large amount of cheesy exudate was seen around the right lobe of the liver and the epicardium. Numerous granulomas were seen in the liver, spleen and epicardium. Each granuloma had a necrotic center surrounded by giant cells and epithelioid cells. Pseudomonas. aeruginosa was purely isolated from the liver, spleen, heart, and cheesy exudate. The disease was diagnosed as P. aeruginosa infection associated with granulomas.
A dog of the Japanese Shikoku breed 2 years and 7 months old suffered from 78 XX male pseudohermaphroditism. Its grandparents were littermates. Another intersexual dog was present among its littermates. The dog had a male-like face and physical constitution, masculinized genitalia, scrotum-like vulva with the narrow rima pudendi and a phallus-like clitoris with the underdeveloped os penis, both types of internal genitalia; both testes, uterine horns, a uterine body, a cervix and a vagina. Analysis of chromosomes in peripheral blood leukocytes revealed a female chromosomal pattern (two X chromosomes). The sex chromatin test on buccal smears showed that 56 % of the cells were sex chromatin positive. This dog was diagnozed as a case of pseudohermaphroditism with disparity of gonad and sex chromosome constitution. The reason of this disparity was not clearly known. One hypothesis was proposed for this case that male deciding factor might be at the other site than Y chromosome. Mullerian-inhibiting factor might not be produced enough from the underdeveloped testes or the Mullerian duct might not be fully sensitive for this factor.