A 10-day-old male calf of F1 of Hereford and Brown Swiss was diagnosed as white scours at 7days of age and died 3days later in spite of treatment. Main autopsy findings were rumenitis, anemia and dehydration. Histopathologically, noteworthy lesions were invasion of fungi in to muscle through the mucosa and blood vessels of the rumen, intestinal catarrh, changes in glomeruli and degeneration of the epithelia of convoluted tubules and loops of Henle in the kidney, and catarrhal suppurative pneumonia. Embolus was recognized in the lung and seemed to have been caused by hyphae or spores. There were no proliferative lesions. Exudation and necrosis were seen in main lesions.
One route of Salmonella contamination of chicken meat leads from a dressing plant into which this organism has been introduced from a contaminated poultry farm, with feathers and skin as vehicles of transmission. To block this route, it is necessary to control the heat treatment at the time of hot water bathing. Heating at 62°C for 1minute or at 65°C for more than 30seconds was germicidal when the number of salmonellae attached to feathers was n × 106/g. When the number of salmonellae attached to the skin wsa n × 109/g, germicidal effect was shown only by heating at 62°C for 5minutes or at 65°C for more than 2.5 minutes. When it was n ×104/g, this effect was displayed by heating at 62°C for 2.5minutes or at 65°C for more than 1minute. Therefore, it is necessary for the prevention of Salmonella contamination of chicken meat to adopt heating at 65°C for 1 to 2 minutes at the time of hot water bathing in the dressing plant as standard procedure.
Gram-positive bacilli were isolated from the venous blood of a dairy cow which died of suspected anthrax in Ryugasaki, Ibaraki Prefecture, in August, 1970. They were identified as Bacillus anthracis (Ryugasaki strain), since they had a capsule, gave a positive phage test, and were pathogenic for mice. As they gave a negative pearl test, they were subjected to the penicillin sensitivity test. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 8, 000u/ml for the Ryugasaki strain, while it was 0.05-0.10u/ml for the control strain of B. anthracis. There were no great differences in sensitivity to other antibiotics than penicillin or sulfa drugs, or in biological properties between the Ryugasaki and control strains. Pathogenicity for mice, as examined by the method of ROTH et al., seemed to be a little lower in the isolated strain than in the control. The centrifugal supernatant of an overnight culture fluid of that strain in tryptosoy broth inactivated 2, 000u/ml of penicillin G completely. This result suggests the presence of penicillinase as the mechanism of resistance of this strain to penicillin. Attention should be paid to the occurrence of penicillin-resistant anthrax bacilli when the diagnosis and treatment of anthrax are to be performed.