Conjunctival cryptosporidiosis was induced in chicks by ocular inoculation of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp.(CR) or a wash-solution of the bursa of Fabricius infected with CR. Day-old chicks obtained from P2 White Leghorn chickens were divided into the following groups; ocular inoculation of mature oocysts for chronological examination (Group I); oral inoculation of mature oocysts (Group A); ocular inoculation of wash-solution of the bursa of Fabricius of Group A (Group B); and non-inoculation control group (Group C). Chicks of Group A were necropsied 14 days post inoculation (PI), while Groups I, B and C were necropsied 4, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days PI. Conjunctival cryptosporidiosis was observed in all chicks in Group B, but it was only observed 10 days PI in Group I. Developmental stages of CR were observed in the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva composed of stratified cuboidal columnar epithelium. The stool of chickens infected CR might have contained mature oocysts, however the wash-solution from the bursa of Fabricius in this study did not contain mature oocysts because of immediate preparation after autopsy. These results suggest that conjunctival infection may occur as a result of direct infection of sporozoites and merozoites derived from meronts and thin-walled oocysts of CR life cycles in the bursa of Fabricius.
The prevalence of age-related behavioral changes in dogs and the concerns of owners were surveyed using a questionnaire. Seventy-two dogs older than ten years were included in this study. Thirty-two dogs (44.4%) were found to have shown some behavioral changes which were present in canine cognitive dysfunction cases. The prevalence of age-related behavioral changes was significant, and increased remarkably at 14 years. Older dogs were found to have shown a range of behavioral changes. There were no significant effects of other profiles on behavioral changes. Many owners complained about the frequent need to attend animal hospitals and about the behavioral changes of aged dogs. But half of all owners failed to address the problems at all. Although canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome concerned most owners of aged dogs, they lack sufficient information or knowledge about it. Owners relied on animal hospitals not only for treatments for diseases but also for management or consultations on behavioral changes. These results suggest that veterinary clinics should more actively encourage owners to provide care for their aged dogs.
A 10-year-old bitch, a golden retriever, with exercise intolerance underwent various medical examinations. Consequently, insulinoma was suspected. An exploratory celiotomy was performed for a definite diagnosis. Then, a tumor was observed in the pancreas, and a surgical resection was performed. It was diagnosed as insulinoma by pathological examination. The post operative course was favorable without treatment, but hypoglycemia was observed about a month after the operation. The dog was initially treated with prednisolonebased therapy, and although the blood glucose level became controllable for about two months, it became impossible after that time. Then, when streptozotocin was administered, the blood glucose level recovered to normal levels. Finally, for approximately six months until death from hemangiosarcoma, which developed during insulinoma treatment, the blood glucose was at a normal level without additional medication with streptozotocin.
The efficacy and safety of Japanese rabies vaccine (inactivated) for veterinary use were investigated in dogs inoculated twice, as mandated by the Import-Export Quarantine Regulation for Dogs and Other Animals. The potency of these vaccines was 1.7-6.2IU/ml based on the National Institute of Health test. These values were more than the 1.0IU/ml potency recommended by OIE. A strong correlation (r=0.927) was found between the results of the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test and those of the virus neutralization (VN) test. It was considered that the FAVN titer of 0.5IU/ml recommended by the Quarantine Regulations corresponded to a VN titer of 25. After two injections with a one month interval between them, the dogs had a VN titer of 1, 655 one month after the second injection and a VN titer of 176 one year after the second injec -tion. Moreover, after two injections with a one year interval between them, the VN titer increased to 3, 096 at one month after the second injection. There were no adverse reactions following vaccinations of dogs inject-ed once with five doses and three times with ten doses. Consequently, two vaccination methods for dogs with Japanese rabies vaccine as provided by the Quarantine Regulations were considered safe and effective.
Eighty-nine birds were found dead in Ogata village in northern Japan, in March 2006. Eighty-eight birds were rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator), which are migratory birds. Since the use of rodenticide (thallium sulfide and zinc phosphate) in the area where the birds had been found was revealed by a survey, etiological and pathological examinations including elemental analysis were conducted. Elemental analysis showed high concentrations (56-365 μg/g dry weight) of thallium in the lungs, gastric contents, intestines, livers and kidneys. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of hepatic cells and granular and/or hyaline droplet degeneration of renal tubular epithelia. The results suggest that the mass deaths were caused by thallium poisoning.