A four-year-old breeding head of Japanese Black Cattle showed swollen and palpable induration in its left rear quarter, which was diagnosed as gangrenous mastitis, in Ishigaki, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, in 2012. An alpha-hemolytic gram-positive coccus was isolated from milk samples from the head of cattle with a titer of 1.4×105 CFU/ml. The isolate was identified as Streptococcus gallolyticus using an API Strep kit and PCR targeting sodA. Furthermore, it was found to belong to S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. g. g.) based on the degrading activities of tannate and gallate. Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that the isolate was highly susceptible to penicillins and cephems, whereas it was resistant to aminoglycosides and macrolides.We here report the first case of Japanese Black Cattle mastitis associated with S. g. g. in Japan.
A five-month-old Japanese Black calf fed at a farm in Kagoshima Prefecture died as a result of severe diarrhea and dehydration. During necropsy, hyperemia and hemorrhages were found on the mucosa of the jejunum, ileum and rectum. Some Trichuris discolor worms were also observed in the mucosa of the rectum. Histopathological examination of the rectum with hemorrhagic enteritis revealed coccidian parasites of various developmental stages in the epithelial cells. Using DNA purified from sections of the rectum, species-specific PCR was conducted and consequently Eimeria (E.) bovis and E. zuernii specific genes were amplified. Through fecal examination of other calves on the farm, oocysts morphologically similar to those of E. bovis and E. zuernii, and eggs of T. discolor were detected. Consequently, we successfully identified E. bovis and E. zuernii from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections and identified a lethal case with these Eimeria species.
To investigate the prevalence of Babesia gibsoni infection, a clinically important haemoprotozoan, in dogs in Japan, we performed antibody testing using ELISA with a recombinant BgTRAP antigen. Of 1,905 healthy dogs living in the prefectures of Nara, Hyogo, Wakayama, and Kagawa from March to August 2014, 101 (5.3%) were positive for the B. gibsoni antibody. The rearing environment, the anthelmintic administration for treatment, and the history of ixodid parasitism had no significant influence on the rate of positive findings. Among dogs housed indoors and those given anthelmintic treatment, 5.8% and 3.8%, respectively, were positive. Hematological and biochemical examinations revealed that the positive rate was significantly greater in dogs with anemic tendency, high leukocyte count, and increased alkaline phosphatase (P＜0.05). These findings suggest that dogs of any status and in all rearing environments are at risk for infection with the protozoa, and not a few apparently healthy dogs have been affected.
A 6-month-old, intact female Papillon dog with a body weight of 1.46 kg was referred to our hospital for examination due to persistent incontinence. At the initial visit, bacterial cystitis, urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence and vaginal/uterine aplasia were suspected following urine examination and retrograde urethrography. Since the incontinence did not respond to pharmacological therapy, transvulvar endoscopy and exploratory laparotomy were performed. We found that both of the uterine horns were connected to the dorsal part of the urinary bladder neck, where they merged with the urethra to form a single tubular structure that opened to the vulva. Based on these intraoperative findings, common urogenital sinus was diagnosed. To control the incontinence, urethral plication was performed. The surgical course was favorable, with a reduction in incontinence symptoms.
A rapid, simple cleanup method using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was developed for the determination of veterinary drugs in pig muscle and kidney using freeze extraction and ultrafiltration. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned using ultrafiltration. The recovery rates for the 45 drugs from the pig preparation (0.01 μg/g) were examined. The 42 drugs met the required validation guidelines. These results indicate that this method may be useful for the simultaneous determination of veterinary drugs in livestock products.