A total of 115 feet, which were proved to have no pathological changes either from gross or from histopathological examination, were collected from horses between 1 and 25 years of age. They were examined radiographic ally with the following results. 1. The foot increased in size with the advance in age until about 6 years. There were no remarkable changes after that. 2. The degree of enlargement or shrinkage revealed in radiographs taken from the lateral, dorsovolar, and volardorsal projections was presumed to be useful for determination of the positional relationship within the foot. The overlapping shadows of the third phalanx, and second phalanx, and lateral cartilage were seen in the dorsovolar projection. 3. In the dorsovolar projection, blur, roughness. and serration were noted on the distal border of the third phalanx, and various shadows were seen inside. In the lateral projection, blurred compact parts and various shadows of bone trabeculae were seen. 4. The degree of modification of the third phalanx was more pronounced in the hind limbs than in the forelimbs, as was clear from these radiographical findings. The external posterior angles were more pronounced than the internal. 5. There was a distinct difference in the radiographic findings of the third phalanx between horses less than 2 years of age and those above this age. In those horses, simple, moderately salient, and salient radiographs were distinguished. 6. Concerning the coarsenss, a considerably intimate relationship was found between the radiographical findings and the findings of such specimens of the third phalanx as cut along the median surface.
The water of Tokyo Bay was examined for microflora to presume the vial bacterial count and microflora on the body surface of inshore fish. 1. A total of 1, 890 strains of bacteria were isolated from the water of Tokyo Bay. They consisted of the following orgainsms at the percentage indicated: Vibrio 28.0, Pseudomonas 26.9, Comamonas 16.7, Achromobacter 15.1, Micrococcus 3.2, Flavobacterium 2.9, Enterobacteriaceae 1.3, Coryneforms 0.8, yeasts and molds 0.7, Bacillus 0.05, and miscellaneous 4.3. 2. The seasonally predominant organisms were Vibrio and Pseudomonas in summer and fall, Comamonasand Pseudomonas in fall and winter, Achromobacter, Comamonas, and Pseudomonas in winter, and Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio in spring. More than 80 percent of the microflora was occupied by Vibrio and Pseudomonas in summer. 3. The microflora of the water at a temperature higher than 16°C was mainly composed of Vibrio and Pseudomonas, and that at a temperature below 16 & deg;C of Achromobacter, Comamonas, and Pseudomonas. 4. Judging from the vial bacterial count and chlorine ion concentration, the water of Tokyo Bay is remarkably contaminated.
A total of 75 cases of bovine pneumonia were detected at postmortem examination in the slaughterhouse, Shibaura, Tokyo, over a period from April, 1958, to December, 1959. Bacteria were isolated from 20 cases (27%) only. Corynebacterium pyogenes showed a high frequency of appearance among them. Histological examination was performed on 42 cases. It revealed bronchitis as main change. Infiltration of acidophils was observed around bronchi and in alveoli in many cases and aberration of juvenile liver flukes in some cases. Parasitization with these flukes in some organ other than the proper one seemed to be the cause of bovine pneumonia.
Shipping fever broke out among calves of the native Japanese breed in the Noto district, Ishikawa Prefecture. It was infections suppurative bronchopneumonia caused by mixed infection with viruses and bacteria. It was treated most effectively by injection with such antibiotic as kanamycin, colistin, and kasugamycin dissolved in 30 ml of distilled water by the intratracheal route. In the chronic case, the effect of antibiotic was improved by simultaeous intratracheal injection with such agents as capable of dissolving the mucus in the trachea and enlarging the bronchi.
Ckickens having congenital passive immunity were examined for immune resoponse when vaccinated with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus at 3 to 18 days of age through drinking water and by the intranasal route. The following results were obtained. Antibodies of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralization were detected from 18 to 39 days of age. The resistance to challenge made up to 24 to 27 days of age varied in chickens having congenital passive immunity. 2. When adiministered with vaccine through drinking water at 3 or 4 days of age, chickens showed no increase in the response of antibodies three weeks after vaccination. Only 17 to 55% of these chickens were proved to be immune against challenge. When chickens were vaccinated at 12 days of age or later, the resistance to challenge increased to 80 percent or higher. Antibodies also increased slightly in chikens vaccinated at 15 days of age. 3. There was no serological response in chickens vaccinated intranasally at 3 or 4 days of age. Of the chickens, 60 to 80 percent resisted against challenge. 4. There was a marked difference in resistance. to challenge between chickens administered with live vaccine and those not vaccinated but with the hemagglutination-inhibition titer.