Eight Holstein dairy cows demonstrating chronic diarrhea and edema shortly after parturition were examined clinicopathologically and pathologically. Because clincopathological findings included marked hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and proteinura, all cases were suspected of manifesting the nephrotic syndrome. But pathogenesis could not be identified, andthe condition was clinically difficult to distinguish from amyloidosis. Necropsy findings included distinctly enlarged kidneys. In histopathological examinations, focal-segmental or global sclerotic lesions of the glomeruli were commonly observed.
This study was designed to determine effects of trimming on hoof growth, hoof-disease occurrence, and beef productivity. Sixteen Japanese black steers (13.0±2.0 months of age, 308.0±30.8 kg in body weight) were divided into 4 groups: the no-trimming group and group 2; in which trimming was performed at 3-month intervals; group 3, in which trimming was performed at 6-month intervals; and group 4, in which trimming was performed at 12month-intervals. At 19-month intervals, hooves were measured and hoof appearance recorded.After slaughter, we made pathological investigations of hoof and joint diseases and obtained scores representing the quantity and quality of beef products. When trimming intervals were longer, hoof angle was smaller, and hoof wall and bulb height increased. The occurrence of hoof diseases in the no-trimming group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in the other groups. Scores for beef-product quantity were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group 3, in which trimming was performed at 6-month intervals, than in the other groups. These results suggest that trimming may be useful in maintaining normal hoof growth and preventing deformation and disease.
The purpose of this study is to determine effects of hoof trimming on transport-induced stress in beef cattle. Forty-one Japanese black steers were randomly divided into 2 groups: trimmed group (n=27) and untrimmed group (n=14). In the trimmed group, hoof trimming was repeated every 6 months, with the final trimming performed 3 months before shipment. The untrimmed group was not trimmed at all until shipment time. Before and after truck transportation to the shipping destination (57.8 km, 4 hours), the cattle were weighed, and their blood was sampled for hematological and biochemical analysis. The indices of transport-induced stress were creatine phosphokinase (CK) and cortisol. In both groups, CK and cortisolincreased after transportation. Increase in the parameters was lower in the trimmed group than in the untrimmed group. Lower CK activity in the trimmed group suggests that the physical demand for posture support during transport in the vehicle was more restricted in thetrimmed group. Plasma cortisol increased less in the trimmed group than in the untrimmed group. This could mean that periodical trimming effectively inhibits transport-induced stress in beef cattle.
Turbidity of the cornea, in newborn puppies a mechanism for protecting the immature retinaand tapetum, parallels decrease in the density of the matrix and thickening and aligning of collagen fibrils. Biochemical analysis indicates a considerable increase in keratan sulfate and a decrease in dermatan sulfate during cornea development. Maintenance of collagen-fibril diameter and preservation of interstitial spaces seems to depend on the functioningof keratan sulfate. Dermatan, on the other hand, inhibits formation of collagen fibrils.Observation of these samples suggests that these two ground substances play essential roles in corneal maturation in neonatal dogs.
Intraocular silicon prostheses were implanted into 46 eyes in 42 dogs. In 45 of the 46, prognosis for the implant was good (97.8% success rate). The silicon sphere in 1 of the 46, however, had to be removed because of corneal ulcer and penetration after surgery. Breeds most often affected were Shih Tzu (13 eyes), Shiba (7 eyes), and American Cocker Spaniel (6 eyes). For the Shih Tzu, the silicon-sphere diameter most frequently used was 18mm. The sphere most frequently used for the Shiba and the American Cocker Spaniel was 16mm in diameter. Almost all owners were satisfied with the operation. When the patient is carefully selected, this procedure is excellent in terms of owner satisfaction, cosmetic appearance, and high success rate.
Movable extra-articular arthrodesis using a Kirschner-Ehmer external fixation system was applied as a new method for treating traumatic coxofemoral luxation in 2 dogs. After manipulative reduction of the hip under anesthesia, a Kirschner wire was orthodromically inserted into the femur from the fossa trochanterica. Then two half pins were inserted into the ilium and the ischiadic tuber and connected with two external parallel bars using two single and two double clamps so that the intramedullary pin lay between the two externalbars. Both animals were able to walk within a few days, and all external fixators were removed 13 and 23 days after surgery. Since the pin inserted into the femur is not fixed to the external bar, this method allows an extensive range of hip-joint motion during treatment.
Three sampling methods (skin-surface swabbing, excised-skin sampling, and whole-carcass rinsing) were compared for bacteria recovery from poultry carcasses. In an experiment with 20 layer carcasses, total viable counts obtained by skin sampling were significantly higher than those obtained by swabbing. Campylobacter was detected on 8 rinsed and 4 excised samples and on 1 swabbed sample. These results suggest that the whole-carcass rinse method is superior to the other methods. In addition, bacterial contamination of carcasses was analyzed between the evisceration stage and rinse-method drip at a broiler-processing plant. Indicator organisms and positive reaction for Campylobacter and Salmonella were significantly lower after rinsing. Nonetheless, Campylobacter was isolated from 6.7% and Salmonella from 56% of 45 cases