A disease of calves characterized by difficulty in standing and nervous symptoms such as ataxia and hypersensitivity occurred in beef and dairy cattle in Kagoshima Prefecture from September to November 2006. Based on histopathological findings, nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in 33 clinical cases. The Akabane virus was isolated not only from the brain stem of the affected calf but also from the plasma of a sentinel calf. These two strains (KS-2/Mo/06 and KS-1/P/06) were antigenically and genetically close to the Iriki strain, which was isolated from the calf cerebellum in 1984. Thirty-two affected calves possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the sentionel calves was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. No prevalence of Akabane virus was observed in 2005 by means of the nationwide seroepidemiological investigations, suggesting that new strains belonging to the Iriki genotype were brought from overseas to Kagoshima Prefecture in the summer of 2006 and the virus caused an epizootic of encephalomyelitis in antibody-free cattle.
Effects of lactated and acetated Ringer's solutions on metabolism and circulatory functions were compared in horses undergoing general inhalation anesthesia. Seven healthy, mature thoroughbred horses were used in this study. Following sedation, the horses were laid on their side and intubated, with anesthesia being maintained by inhalation of halothane-oxygen mixture for three hours. A lactated Ringer's solution was intravenously infused at a rate of 10 ml/kg/hr for three hours. Subsequently, the same horses were infused with acetated Ringer's solution under the same conditions. Study parameters included mean arterial blood pressure, blood lactic acid level, arterial blood pH, arterial blood PaCO2, HCO3, anesthesia score, and recovery score. Lactic acid levels were higher following the lactated Ringer's solution infusion. Therefore, acetated Ringer's solution was considered more effective for horses during the perioperative period, since there isa reduced buildup of lactic acid (acidic substance).
The present experiment was conducted to assess the effects of labial stimulation after artificial insemination (AI) on the conception rate in Holstein cattle. In this experiment, 295 heifers were randomly assigned to a control group and an exposure group. The labia of the heifers in the exposure group were stimulated for 15 seconds after AI. The conception rates in heifers in the exposure group (69.2%) tended to be higher than those in the control group (64.7%). The conception rate of heifers in the control from July to August tended tobe lower, but this tendency was not observed in heifers in the exposure group. When we analyzed the effect of the efficiency of labial stimulation on the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI), the conception rates in the control in THI ≥z 72 group (46.8%) were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those in the THI <72 group (73.9%). However, this difference was not observed in the exposure group.
An 11-year-old, 35 kg, castrated male Labrador retriever expressed acroparalysis and dysstasia. A mass involving the medulla spinalis through the foramina nervosa between the 5th and 6th cervical vertebrae was found by MRI examination. At necropsy, there was a translucent white cartilage-like mass (1.5×2.5cm) in the epineurium of the right 6th cervical nerve. The mass was present in the epidural layer of spinal canal, and compressed the 5th cervical cord. The neoplastic tissue had a lobular structure and cartilageous matrix. The tumor cells had swollen nuclei, differences in size, binuclear cells, and rare mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, the cytoplasms and nuclei of the tumor cells were consistently positive for S-100 protein. This tumor was thought to have derived from pluripotent undifferentiated mesenchymal cells in the epineurium of the right 6th cervical nerve, with a diagnosis of extraskeletal chondrosarcoma. Extraskeletal chondrosarcomas are extremely rare in both human and domestic animals.
An intrathoracic mass was found in a 10-year-old spayed Golden Retriever at the base of the heart by chest radiography. Approximately one month later, the dog was referred to our hospital because of coughing and vomiting. Exploratory thoracotomy and an incisional biopsy of the mass were performed on the 39th day after the initial examination. A histopathologic diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma (HS) was made. Treatment with lomustine (CCNU) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 po was performed every three weeks. The clinical signs improved, and the intrathoracic tumor diminished significantly in size. Over the course of 17 administrations of lomustine, severe side effects were not observed, and recurrence and metastasis were not observed until the dog died on the 569th day. Therefore, lomustine is suggested as useful in the treatment of canine histiocytic sarcoma.
An 11-year-old, spayed female Toy poodle was presented for evaluation of a sudden onset of blindness. Menace blink response and pupillary light reflex were bilaterally absent, and dilated pupils were observed. Electroencephalogram and ophthalmic examination, including fundoscopy, tonometry, and electoretinogram, revealed normal range. On the basis of clinical and postmortem histopathological examinations, the dog was diagnosed with the ocular form of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis.
We conducted an abattoir survey to determine the prevalence of Salmonella from 580 healthy pigs reared on 58 farms in Kagoshima Prefecture, in Japan. Salmonella spp. were detected in 91 (15.6%) of pigs belonging to 27 (46.6%) farms. Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) was isolated from 51 (8.8%) pigs originating from 19 (32.8%) farms. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing involving 51 ST isolates was then performed. Resistance to ampicillin (A), chloramphenicol (C), streptomycin (S), sulphamethoxazole (Su) and tetracycline (T) was detected in six isolates of ST whereas ASSuT resistance pattern was observed in six isolates. Integron-specific regions were detected from five of 12 isolates, implying the presence of class I integrons. Three integron patterns were revealed and four strains carried integrons of 1.0 and 1.2 kb, characteristic of the ST definitive phage type 104 (DT104). We inferred these strains as DT104, since they possessed the florfenicol resistance gene (floR) and DT104 common genes. These findings suggest the existence of DT104 strains among pigs in the prefecture. Conversely, a multidrug resistant non-DT104 strain that is also resistant to Fluoroquinolones was observed, indicating further expansion of the range of drug resistance.