The new load test for detecting hind-hoof diseases employs a three-point scoring system for posture and weight bearing in a standing posture (score of 1: level back, no pain; score of 2: level back, right-left imbalance in weight bearing; score of 3: arched back, left-right imbalance in weight bearing). This test detected hind-hoof disease in 44 (35.5%) of 124 barn-tethered dairy cows. Prevalence of hoof disease was significantly (P<0.0001) higher in cows with scores of 2 or 3 than in cows with scores of 1. Sensitivity for hoof-disease detection in cows with scores of 2 or 3 was 84.1%; specificity for animals with the same scores was 90.0%. All cows with sole ulceration had scores of 3. Three examiners spent from eight to 10 minutes examining 20 cows. The scores of the three demonstrated no statistically significant differences. These results suggest the new load test is useful for detecting hind-hoof disease in barn-tethered dairy cows.
Acquired inguinal hernia was surgically treated in three racehorses, all of which had raced in spite of long histories of hernia. In Case 1, because no signs of colic were present, laparotomy, hospitalization, and intensive care were unnecessary. Bilateral inguinal rings were sutured without laparotomy. After surgery, it turned out that, at the age of 5 weeks, this horse had undergone unilateral castration and herniorrhaphy for congenital inguinal hernia. Cases 2 and 3 showed signs of colic. In Case 2, during laparotomy, 30 centimeters of the jejunum was found to be herniated to the scrotum. In connection with unilateral castration on the side of the hernia, intestinal resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed for the nonviable lesion. After the horse resumed racing, a new inguinal hernia occurred on the sideopposite to that of the previous hernia. In Case 3, the pelvic flexure of the large colon was hemiated to the scrotum. The situation was rectified by means of laparotomy. Bilateral castration was performed, and both inguinal rings were sutured. These three cases revealed racehorses with persistent long-term inguinal hernia and indicate that, even when there is no emergency, early surgical treatment of inguinal hernias in racehorses is desirable.
Histopathological studies of hamster skin biopsies sent to the Kitasato Institute Companion Animal Laboratory between July 1994 and September 2001 led to diagnosis of tumors in 229 of 257 cases (89.1%). More than 70% of the tumors occurred in Djungarian hamsters; and 60% were benign epithelial tumors occurring predominantly in the cervix, chest, abdomen, axillaries, and anterior and lateral parts of animals less than two years old. In males, proliferative fasciitis appeared mostly in the abdomen. Papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were frequent in the aurical, whereas apocrine adenoma and adenocarcinoma were dominant in females. Lymphosarcoma developed mostly in the cervix of Golden hamsters less than one year of age.
A 3-year-old male mongrel dog with a black-and-white coat suffered from alopecia and was introduced to our clinic. Alopecia had started at the age of 1 year and extended from the head to the trunk by the time. Alopecia lesions appeared only in the black-haired and not in the white-haired areas. Clinical examinations, including fungal culture, complete blood count, blood-chemistry analyses, endocrine tests, and antinuclear-antibody (ANA) testing, produced no significant findings. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the black hair lacked hair cuticle and demonstrated focal swelling and rupture on hair surfaces. Histopathology revealed numerous clumps of melanin in epidermal and follicular basal cells and hair-matrix cells in the black-haired regions but no abnormalities in the white-haired ones. These examinations led to the diagnosis of black hair follicular dysplasia.
MRI and Pathological examinations of a 12-year-old spayed female mongrel dog with status epilepticusshowed that the animal's condition involved an astrocytoma. MRI examinations confirmed hypo-intensity on the T1-weighted image and hyper-intensity on the T2-weighted image in the right temporal lobe in transverse and dorsal images. Mild contrast enhancement of the lesion too was found. In spite of medical treatment including administration of phenobarbital and prednisolone, symptoms progressed until the 45th day of clinical onset. Because it demonstrated such abnormal behavior as barking and biting, the dog was euthanized at the owner's request. On the basis of clinical MRI and pathological findings, the cerebral mass was diagnosed as anaplastic astrocytoma.
We investigated the prevalence of three food-poisoning bacteria-Arcobacter, Campylobacter, andSalmonellain 60 samples of retail ground chicken.Arcobacterspp. were isolated from 26 (43.3%) samples. Of these, A. butzleriwas detected from 22 samples, bothA. butzleriand A. cryaerophilus (group 1B) from 3 samples, andA. skirrowiifrom 1 sample.C. jejuniwas isolated from 12 (20%) samples. Penner's serogroup A ofC. jejuniisolates was found in 4 samples, group B in 3 samples, group D in 1 sample, and G in 1 sample. Salmonella was isolated from 7 (11.7%) samples. Serovar S. Infantis was detected from 6 samples and serovar S. Typhimurium from 1 sample. These findings suggest that retail ground chicken meat may be a potential vehicle for transmittingArcobacter, Campylobacter, and Salmonelladiseases.