Field trials were conducted on prophylactic effects of levamisole hydrochloride (LH) on Dirofilaria immitis infection. In them, 120 non-infected dogs in the Kitatama area of Tokyo, were exposed to mosquitoes under natural condition throughout the infectious season of 3months (July to September). Of them, fifty-nine were medicated orally with LH in August and October. To them a dosage of 15mg/kg/day (t. i. d.) was given for 5days, at an interval of 2months. The infection was confirmed by detecting blood microfilariae by the filter concentration method or the acetone concentration method during a period from April to June of the next year. Twenty-three (37.7%) of the 61 untreated control dogs showed microfilaremia, but no microfilaria was recognized in any medicated dogs. Several medicated dogs showed mild and transient anorexia, vomiting and diarrhea.
Both ovaries were examined macroscopically in 204 bitches with pyometra. In some cases, they had corpora lutea only or follicles only. In some others, they contained corpora lutea concurrently with follicles, cysts, or tumors, or with follicles and cysts. In the othercases, they had no components described above. One or more corpora lutea could be seen in 195 cases (95.6%), follicles in 13 cases (6.4%), cysts in 57 cases (27.9%) and tumors in 3 cases (1.5%) of the 204. Since almost all the bitches with pyometra had corpora lutea, it is conceivable that corpora lutea might play an important role in the pathogenesis of canine pyometra. While follicles, cysts or tumors coexisted with corpora lutea in some cases, no corpora lutea were observed in a few cases. This result suggests that an unbalanced secretion of other ovarian hormones than progesterone might also be concerned with pyometra.
Vectorcardiogram (VCG) was recorded in 26 normal adult cows by applying the heart-orthogonal lead system of Ohi. The inclination angles and the amplitudes of maximum vector on horizontal, sagittal and transverse planes were as follows: 53.54°, 0.207mV: 21.07°, 0.182mV: 24.58°, 0.159mV in the Ploop, -81.63°, 0.830mV:-133.08°, 1.147mV:-83.98°, 0.864mV in the QRS loop, 94.75°, 0.429mV: 48.79°, 0.545mV: 101.37°, 0.447mV in the Tloop, respectively. There were not so remarkable individual differences in any parameter. The P loop was small, elliptic, and plotted in the direction of the left caudoventral side. The QRS loop was smoothly long thin ellipse in shape and plotted in the direction of the slightly left and craniodorsal side. It seemed to clarify the conductive trouble of cardiac electrical activity in the ventricles. The Tloop was smoothly elliptic and plotted in the opposite direction (slightly right and caudoventral side) to the QRS loop.VCG may offer useful information on the conductivity of cardiac muscle which is estimated from ECG led by the present apex-base lead system in the cow.
In July, 1983, acute trichuriasis of occurred among swine on a breeding farm in Okayama Prefecture. The pig pens of the farm had a so-called sawdust fermentation floor which was composed of sawdust about 70cm in depth. Feces and urine were left in the pen to be treated by fermentation induced by sawdust and bacteria. The sawdust remained unchanegd for about one year. Such pen was developed by a Japanese farmer in 1982 to save the cost of excreta disposal. Diarrhea, mucus and bloody feces were observed in a herd of pigs about 4months old. Of 363 pigs, eight died of the disease. In them, the colon, cecum, and rectum were parasitized with numerous immature Trichuris suis worms, affected with a severe inflammation. In two dead pigs the number of worms was 4, 400 and 5, 350 and the mean body length 10.6 and 18.4mm, respectively. No eggs were recovered from the feces. Trichuris eggs of the developing stage were detected in the sawdust of 20 of 50 pig pens. The disease was treated successfully with parbendazole or flubendazole.
Gentamicin was administered orally to 104 calves with diarrhea in a feedlot in the Tokachi district, Hokkaido, over a period from July to December, 1982. As a result, 66.7% of 48 calves and 85.7% of the remaining 56 calves recovered after oral administration of 0.5 and 1.0mg/kg twice a day for 3days, respectively. There was no difference in the number of bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Streptococcus, between fecal samples collected before treatment and those after treatment. E. coli strains with K-99 antigen were detected in 21.7% of 69 calves and 12.6% of 199 strains. Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 14.7% of 102 fecal samples. In the group of 0.5mg/kg dosage, a few calves changed to be positive for S. typhimurium after treatment. In the other group, however, few calves were found infected with S. typhiumrium.E. coli and S. typhimurium were susceptible to gentamicin.
Fluctuation of serum tocopherol levels was investigated in healthy horses under various physiological conditions. There were no significant differences in serum total tocopherol level between ages, sexes, or times of the day. In healthy horses over 2years old, the mean levels of serum total tocopherol were 166±65. 4 and 216±63.4μg/100ml for the stable and pasture-feeding period, respectively, showing a significant difference. Particularly, 8 of 88 (9%) horses examined over the stable-feeding period showed levels below 100μg/100ml. No significant seasonal fluctuation was seen in serum total tocopherol or α-tocopherol level in adult horses examined, although the level was a little higher in summer and fall than in any other season. Serum total tocopherol decreased within 1 to 2weeks after parturition. Foals were born with a minimal level of serum total tocopherol, or 210±45.5μg/100ml. After the consumption of colostrum, this tocopherol increased gradually to reach a maximum level, or 907±232.4μg/100ml, at 3days of age.
Cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary was found in a 20-year-old Japanese Black cow. Macroscopically, neoplastic masses composed of cysts were seen on the serous surfaces of the abdomen and omentum major. Metastatic lesions were observed in the pulmonary lymph nodes. Histologically, the cysts were composed of ciliated and non-ciliated epithelia. Electron microscopically, the ciliated epithelium was rich in fibrils and fibrillar bundles. The non-ciliated epithelium was sparse of organelles. Both epithelia were connected with each other with desmosomes. A basement membrane was seen at the base of the epithelia, which were surrounded by fibroblasts.
A mediastinal tumor was encountered in a slaughtered hybrid hog with no clinical signs. It was of irregular cone shape and located in the right cervicothoracic portion. It was 9.5×6.0×5.6cm in size and weighed 220g. It entered the right lobe of the thymus with no obvious boundary, covered with a common dense fibrous capsule. The cut surface of the tumor was milky white in color and divided into irregular lobules with necrosis and hemorrhage at the center. The other organs, including lymph nodes, had no remarkable changes. Histopathologically, the normal thymus tissue was seen in the peripheral portion of the mass. The tumor was composed mainly of polyhcdral and spindle-shaped epithelial cells and lymphcytes. It was diagnosed as thymoma with predominant epithelial cells.