The sedimentary cells of bronchoalveolar lavage-fluid from 3 rhesus monkeys given Paraquat (PQ) experimentally were morphologically studied. Two of them (No.1 and No.2) died on day 6 following a single injection of PQ (2mg/kg, S.C.). The third (No.3) was given 6 doses of PQ during a 53 day period to produce PQ-induced pulmonary injury. In this animal, two peaks were observed in cellular density during the experimental period. These were mainly dependent upon the increase of neutrophils and type III and type IV pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). These types of increases in PAM are suggestive that, by their activation, many kinds of biologically active substances, e. g. superoxide and lysosomal enzymes, which might have some relationship to the pathogenesis of PQ-induced pulmonary injury, are released.
Traumatic diseases caused by metallic objects in the reticulum have recentey showed an increasing tendency. With the view of finding out the cause and thereby applied preventive methods, 193 (1986) and 194 heads (1987) ill dairy cows were subjected to the cow sucker treatment and examined for metallic foreign bodies from January 1986 to December 1987. 62 heads of dairy cows having healthy, normal clinical findings were also identically examined. As a result, metallic foreign bodies were extracted from 80% of the ill cows in the years 1986 and 1987 compared to 82.3% from healthy cows of the same period. However, those metallic foreign bodies which were extracted in 1987 showed significant (p<0.01) increases in both the length and the number compared with those extracted in 1986. Subsequent examination of the suspected food and its mixture led to the detection of a long, linear wire of equal diameter as the intragastric body, from imported, packaged hay. Another examination of 8 cases of dead cows given Parnet 8 (hereinafter referred to as P8) revealed that abundant metallic foreign bodies, which were wires shorter than those found in P8 (8 cm), were adsorbed by P8 in 6 cases. Then, an investigational test was carried out. Judging from the number of extracted metallic foreign bodies, the effect of P8 administration was recognized. In the magnetic force test, an extreme decrease in magnetic force was noted according to the condition (abundant adsorption of wire, two adsorbed by P8), suggesting instable fixation of the foreign body. The above suggested that the wire existing within the imported hay was responsible for the increase in reticulum-originated traumatic diseases, thus making it necessary to detect a group of riskful cows and eliminate intragastric metallic foreign bodies.
Clinical and biochemical changes of a cow which developed liver disorders while grazing on an open field were followed-up for approximately one year from the time of the initial onset. The cow studied was an 18-month-old adult dairy Holstein. The clinical manifestations at the time of the onset consisted mainly of jaundice, tarry diarrhea and loss of vitality. GOT, γ-GTP, ALP and bilirubin were markedly increased at the onset. Thereafter, GOT activity and bilirubin concentration rapidly decreased. The sialic acid concentration increased immediately after the onset and stayed at an increased level until the clinical symptoms were remitted. The serum lipoperoxide level in the cow with liver disorders was markedly elevated to 30nmol/ml at 10 months before the onset but was reduced 8 months before the onset. Serum lipoperoxide in the control group ranged from 1 to 3 nmol/ml. And underwent no significant variations during the course of observation. On examining the composition of serum total fatty acid in the cow with liver disorders, there were increases in myristic acid and palmitic acid and a decrease in stearic acid 6 months prior and up to the initial onset.
The susceptibility of 22 strains of H. paragallinarum isolated from various parts of the country and two controls to ofloxacin (OFLX), a new quinolone derivative, and to 15 existing commonly used antimicrobial agents were compared. The drugs to which the bacterium responded with high susceptibility are show in the order of the values of MIC90 (the concentration at which the growth of 90% of the strain was inhibited) as follows: H. paragallinarum responded with the highest susceptibility to OFLX; MIC90 was 0.1μg/ml. The second highest susceptibility was obtained by the following five agents, thiamphenicol (TP), oxolinic acid (OXA), ampicillin (ABPC), chloramphenicol (CP) and trimethoprim (TMP); MIC90 of these drugs ranged from 0.39 to 0.78μg/ml. The bacterium also responded relatively well to the following five agents; doxycycline (DOXY), oxytetracycline (OTC), 20: 1 preparation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (ST), tiamulin (TML) and tylosin (TS); MIC90 ranged from 1.56 to 6.25μg/ml. A medium degree of susceptibility was obtained by kanamycin (KM) and spectinomycin (SPCM); MIC90 of both being 12.5μg/ml. The strains of H. paragallinarum responded with low susceptibility to sulfamethoxazole (SMX) sulfadimethoxin (SDMX), and streptomycin (SM); MIC90 ranging from 100 to>200, ug/ml. Seven isolates were resistant to SM. In conclusion, of the 16 antimicrobial agents tested, OFLX had the highest antimicrobial activity against H. paragallinarum. MIC90 of OFLX was 1/4 to 1/128 of those of any other drug except the three drugs to which this bacterium responded with low susceptibility.
The isolation of K99+Escherichia coli (K99 E. coli) was performed using diarrheal stool which occurred in calves from january through October, 1988. Moreover, bacteriolgical examination of isolated K99 E. coli and the adherent condition of K99 antigen in the intestinal canal of a dead calf was observed. In addition an epidemiological survey mainly including antibody examination of adult cattle were made. Out of 50 cases of diarrheal stools collected from calves, 11 strains of K99 E. coli were isolated. The toxin-producing ability of K99 E. coli thus isolated was all ST-positive and LT-negative, and 0 antigen was 09 and 08 in 9 and 2 cases, respectively. The adhesion of K99 antigen in the intestinal canal was remarkable in the jejunum and ileum. K99 antibody examination of 100 cattle selected at random from 92 farms revealed that 34 adult cattle (34%) showed a more than fourfold antibody titer. The K99 antibody titer of those cattle belonging to the forms, where the diarrheal calves occurred, became positive in 6-9 months after the disease occurred.
A total of 1085 sera collected or submitted from 217 chicken flocks during 1988-89 were examined for antibody to avian nephritis virus, strain AAF7, by the indirect immunofluorescence test. Antibody was positive in 565 (52.1%) sera from 185 (85.3%) flocks tested. There was no difference in positive rates between broiler and layer chickens, nor among districts. It was shown that 28 (77.8%) of 36 breeding flocks had antibody to the strain AAF7.
A 10-year-old, male, mongrel dog showed moderate anemia with leukopenia at 30 to 60-day intervals for 2 years (August 1987-June 1988). When the dog was in the anemic state, hematocrit value and total leukocyte count decreased between 18% and 30% and-between 1400 and 4000/μl, respectively; this condition was associated with anorexia, elevated body temperature (39. 5-40. 5 C), and splenomegaly. No remarkable changes of either erythrocyte or leukocyte morphology and differential leukocyte count were observed during the anemic state and leukopenic phases. The patient usually recovered from the disease within 1-2 weeks after the onset of anemia, following treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. As the hematocrit value increased, a marked increase in the number of reticulocytes was observed in the peripheral blood. After splenectomy of the patient, this cyclic anemia with leukopenia disappeared. The weight of the excised spleen was 550 g. Histopathological examination of the spleen showed no significant pathological changes other than congestion and moderate hemosidelosis. From these findings, this case was diagnosed as primary hypersplenism.
Very rare cases of a perforated gastric ulcer accompanied by Toxocara cati penetrated into the abdominal cavity have been reported. A 7-year-old male, domestic short-hair cat weighing 6kg, was presented to Nippon Veterinary and Zootechnical College due to recurrent episodes of anorexia and vomiting and an enlarged abdomen. Because abdominal gas was strongly suspected by radiographic examination, a laparotomy was performed and gastric ulcer was corrected after discovery of a live Toxocara cati in the abdominal cavity. The cat recovered form surgery, however, acute perforations occurred the following day. An emergency operation was performbd and two gastric perforations were repaired and four Toxocara cati were removed from the abdominal cavity, but the cat was unable to recover from the surgery. The exact mechanism of the ulceration is not clear in this case. Necropsy demonstrated. an acute gastric ulcer caused by severe stresses, because there were no inflammatory responses around the ulcer. It is suspected that the gastric ulcer was brough on by unknown stresses and the Toxocara cati penetrated into the ulcer which resulted in the perforation of the gastric mucosa and acute septic pertonitis.